New thesis on the Unitec case introduced near the university of Naples “Parthenope ” rewarded with the best note.
The Thesis in Italian language is available in format zip in the download area

Faculty of Economy

Supervisor Prof.
Gennaro Ferrara

Reporter Prof.
Giuseppe Vito


Giuseppe Agus




The following job is fruit of one tightened collaboration with the Unitec.
The object of the thesis is the study of the Virtual Warehouse whose term has been coined from dottor the recently recognized Marino Vincenzo and in the Dictionary of the published Digital Economy from the Sole2ore .
Beyond to the drawing up of the university thesis, it is intentional to realize a job from which the manager sanitary they can reach news and you dull for being able to comprise the new potentialities they offered from the application of the modern technologies to the business management and in such case to the management of a sanitary district.


“the economy, at least in physical terms, is contracting itself. If it he were industrial were characterized for the accumulation of understood them physicist and property, the new was privileges intangible shapes to be able, collections in packages of information and understood them intellectual. The material assets, by now are a strengthened fact, are materially and un-materially “.

Jeremy Rifkin

The complex economic phase that is being crossed is characterized from a phrenetic race to the innovation dictated essentially from the continuous technological progress.
In the market odierno, in which the constant change it is the rule and not the exception, the time is had hardly “to try” a new product or a new service before that an improved version comes put on the market. In a context therefore convulso to become account of the changes in action, in order then to adopt the more appropriate solutions, it covers for the enterprises a primary importance.
We find ourselves in a phase of transition in which it is assisted to the passage from the material to the immaterial one, from the physicist to the virtual one, in which the same term of “possession” loses man importance hand while it is gone asserting the concept of “access”.
To step with the times and trying to take advantage of to advantage of the own customers the new possibilities that they are gone delineating, the Unitec has devised the Virtual Warehouse, one solution turned to the enterprises pertaining to a whichever type of district.
The Virtual Warehouse offers to such enterprises the possibility to pass from a management of traditional type, to which the existence of remarkable is associated wastes and redundancies, to that previews a cooperation and sharing of resources on the base of logistic services distributes to you from provider (the Unitec).
The job that follows has the scope to illustrate as the Virtual Warehouse can represent the base in order to put into effect a optimization of the business processes and concurs with the enterprises participants to obtain one greater availability of assets to smaller costs.



From always the warehouse just one of the vital points of the enterprise to which management the dedication particular seen attention the essential function that is considered it carries out to the inside of the company and in all the production process.
In the running language the term “warehouse” refers to a premises used after the warehouse and to the conservation of the goodses.
From a economic-business point of view this definition decidedly turns out reductive since with the same term logistic structure in a position to receiving goodses is made reference to one “, guarding them, to conserve them, and to make available them for the smaltimento and the delivery “. The role acquitted from the warehouse goes very therefore beyond to that one of mere warehouse of the goodses.
It acts as from connection between the purchases of the enterprise and the processes of transformation, and between the processes of transformation and those of sale, guaranteeing therefore the continuity of the production process and the timeliness in the satisfaction of the needs of the customers.
Moreover it concurs to separate to two segments of the distributive process (purchase produced matters and sale) equips you of dynamic different to the aim to obtain one cost reduction, to guarantee the stoccaggio abilities and to assure the flow of the goodses.
The warehouse guarantees therefore is the continuity of the production process, svincolandolo from the tempistica of supplyings and from eventual impediments in the reception of the supply, it is the separation of the processes on which structure the business activity.
To such purpose we can distinguish three is made between independent and gestibili they connected but with dynamic detailed lists, that is: supplying, economic /technical transformation and commercialization.


Figure n. 1.1- Production process.

Thanks to I use of a warehouse can be supplied to supplyings second the rhythms judges to you more opportune and in the times in which the prices more convenient are thought, independently from the fluctuations of the sales.
That offers to the enterprise the possibility to svincolare the purchases of the factors of the production from the necessity of uses immediate. Tasks to the possibility to acquire quantitative a high one of raw materials, even if the necessities of the production process are very inferior, have using of in a data moment of particular reductions in price or prices on the market, and to deposit the surplus in warehouse.
Or that in presence of an elevated question of market, the enterprise decides not to take advantage of to the maximum the productive systems (avoiding therefore the overtime of the dependent) and to satisfy the greater demand regarding the own production using part of the previously accumulated production in the warehouses.
The necessity to maintain determines quantitative you to you of assets in warehouse is one characteristic that it joins, even if in various measure, all the enterprises: they are cargo vessel they, industrial manufacturers of assets (industrial enterprises) or manufacturers manufacturers of services (enterprises of services).
To second of the tipologia of analyzed enterprise the warehouse it assumes particular aspects:
The warehouse of the industrial enterprises
In these enterprises to second of the various ones it is made of working of the assets, we distinguish:

  1. The warehouse of the raw materials, subsidiary, semifinished and destined members to being employs to you in the transformation processes.
  2. The warehouse of the finished products that they are originated in the production process, in particular of the semifinished ones and of the products in by-product let alone working course.


Figure n.1.2 – Production process of an industrial enterprise.

Such type of enterprise generally is equipped of rigid a productive structure, therefore it cannot be modified continuously in the short period in order to answer to the variability of the market.
Not being able to adapt itself ready to “the inflation as an example disturbs” coming from from the market which, or the deficiency of determining well, can be satisfied by means of the goodses conserved in warehouse.
Also the warehouse “finished product” carries out a fundamental role because it concurs to maintain the production processes regular and constant, as an example in periods of decrease of the question on the market the warehouse constitutes a warehouse of products.
In other words the role carried out from the warehouse of the finished products is that one to hold separates the production rhythms to you from the oscillations of the question of the final market.
The warehouse of the cargo vessel enterprises
A very various formulation from that manufacturer is demanded for a cargo vessel enterprise.
The cargo vessel enterprises, in fact, do not carry out a technical and material transformation of the goodses but an economic transformation in the time and the space, limiting themselves to more modifying the outer aspect of the good for the presentation to the public.
In the cargo vessel enterprises the warehouse is composed mainly from the goodses and the material of useful consumption to the distribution activity.


Figure n. 1.3 – Production process of a business institution them.

It gives the possibility of:

  • To guarantee continuity in the escape of the demands for customers
  • To manage the purchases in the more convenient moments
  • To manage promozionali campaigns useful to attract the customers and to diffuse the name of the enterprise.

The warehouse of the enterprises of services
For such enterprises there is the impossibility to store in how much the services must be uses you in the same moment in which they are produced.
To the maximum the enterprise could have need of a warehouse for the material useful to carry out just the service.


In the management of the warehouse the border between potentiality to take advantage of and problems to resolve is much thin one. Enough a nothing in order to make to become what previously it was even a force point, an element carrying of all the organizational, productive and managerial structure of the enterprise, in a “generating field” problems of economic, financial and organizational order.
Behind a efficient warehouse there is a efficient management and organization. If these had to come to lack, or to introduce gaps, inefficiency would unavoidablly extend to all the business activity.
The management of the warehouse consists in rationalizing the business inner resources to the aim to implement of the efficiency, synonym of competitiveness in the competitive markets.
The business management, and in particular that one of the warehouse, once it were considered like a pure inner element to the enterprise.
Currently, instead, the modern managerial techniques, more and more oriented to the search of the flexibility, stretch to interlace so deep relationships with other actors (supplying, customers, other enterprises.), to render impossible one distinction inner-outside.
Until some year it makes in order to obtain efficiency was necessary to centralize the production on the search of the quality of the product.
In the time but the question of the consumers it becomes more and more demanding, are not pleased more of the product in if for if and to the quality of the product, hour total of the product is demanded the quality.
This has influenced in consisting way on the concept “to produce” that in its turn it has influenced the management of the warehouse.
Since the efficiency does not find more centralizing the forces on the search of a production of quality of the good, but on the simplification and optimization of the management and its procedures it is obligation see again and to optimize the warehouse.
The management of the warehouse door to remarkable physical costs, and of the not quantifiable returns (increase of the efficiency).
Therefore that in passed has been dedicated interest little.
To the day today instead greater importance is attributed to you, which is dictated from competitive requirements.
In fact the played more and more pitiless competition on the competitive markets does not save who present of the inferior standards of efficiency to the others. As an example, in it was of Internet is nearly of all unthinkable one management lacking in computer science support.
The technological developments have brought of the remarkable advantages, making the fortune of who have known to pick, decreeing them the failure of who of it have not comprised the potentialities.
Carried out more and more often with particular techniques, making wide use of the computer science support, also in net with the suppliers, the management of the warehouse must be considered priority: it involves costs elevates to you but if put into effect in adequate way it concurs savings and increments of efficiency.
This must be put into effect, but, so as to not to weight down the patrimonial structure of the enterprise and without to weigh on its equilibrium excessive financial.
In fact the company needs of an inner organization rations them and fast, placed side by side from factors which:

  1. to assure continuity and timeliness of development to the technical processes of production
  2. to assure a continuous and timely feeding of the sale processes
    to reduce lessened the connected costs to the maintenance of the supplyes
  3. attitude of the enterprise in supplying of the raw materials and the goodses
  4. logistic organization and trades them for the efficient distribution of the finished product on the market
  5. predisposition to the evolution.


A warehouse has direct costs inherent to its structure which: relative costs of the staff, costs you to the equipments, relative costs you to the premises and the spaces of reception of the goodses and shunting and shipment of the same ones.
Not negligible costs are then those relati you to the conservation in warehouse of the goodses, packings and the other materials of consumption.
To stop supplyes door a series of advantages to the enterprise, and puts it protected from the disadvantages previously illustrates to you, but it is from holding present that the supplyes involve costs.
The costs are represent to you in particular from 2 members:

  • first purchase is relative to of goodses, that it represents an investment for a duration of time that goes from the moment of the payment of the purchase of the raw materials, at the moment in which happens the proceeds of the sale of the finished products obtained from the same matters;
  • second from the relative costs you to the maintenance (warehouse costs). This last vincolano enormous understood embezzling them them to the productive investments. Esteem that beyond 30 % annual of the business understood one them is bound in warehouse, that is a warehouse from 5 million euro coast of only understood them 1,5 milioni/anno, excluded the operating costs.


The main objective of the management financial institution of the supplyes of warehouse and that one to render minimums the regarding costs the acquisition and I use it of the same supplyes.
In connection with their origin they exist you vary types of supplyes: the technical supplyes or work them and the speculative supplyes.
First they are those connected to the resolution of the problem sincronizzare several the business processes. The second ones are those that derive from opportunity that the enterprise has picked in the purchase markets.
To the aim to render the relationship between costs and level of service optimal (satisfaction of the question) the management is held to pursue 3 important objects to you: a productive objective, that is to guarantee the continuity and the regular in the flow of the materials; a objective financial, that is to maintain to bottoms the volumes and the lay time (immobilizes) of the supplyes; an economic objective, that is to engage lessened the spaces and the resources assigned to the mobing.
At least two alternatives of management exist that satisfy in various measure such object to you: c.d. the management to supply, in which the levels of supply¹ are determines to you based on the historical consumptions; c.d. the management to requirementses² , in which the levels of supply are determines to you based on the order forecasts.
The characteristic parameters of the so-called management to supply are substantially: the economic lottery of purchase (LEA), that one of production (LEP), the levels of the supply of emergency (SS) and the point of I reorder (PRM), beyond naturally to ties of ability to the warehouse.


The approach mainly diffused to business level inherent to the location of the amount to acquire is represented from the “economic lottery of purchase”, also said optimal lottery of supplying.
The economic lottery of purchase is the amount of goodses or materials that every time is opportune to order in order to render the combination of the costs minimal totals that the enterprise must support for their supplying (costs of order) and that refers to the conservation of the warehouse supplyes (stock costs). Analyzing to these two members it can be comprised as from “simple” the objective to diminish the costs it is come to determine the “economic lottery of purchase”.
The costs of order (or operating costs of the orders) are tendentially fixed costs since they do not depend on the entity of the single order. The relative costs you to the emission of the order and those for the successive control of the invoice do not change are that one is acquired single unit of one given goods or that if of it acquires 1000 units.
The stock costs, also sayings cost of maintenance of the supplyes, are of the variable costs, that is directly correlate to you to the volumes of the supplyes. To hold account that greater they are the times of permanence of the goodses in warehouse, greater is the costs connected to the interests on the invested them understood one, to the risk of eventual damages, ruin, obsolescences … Of continuation filler a table in which the various costs of order and stock are reassumed.


The order costs are constituted give:

  • managed costs you of order;
  • control and reception costs quality;
  • shipping charges.

The costs of ordinazione and transport are proportion them to the number of orders and transports.
In the analysis of our study we do not consider, at least initially, in this category: the shipping charges proporziona them to the volumes, neither the purchase commissions proporziona them to the purchase volumes. The formula of the order costs can therefore be expressed:


(fixed cost for every order·number of the orders)

In which we indicate with:

  • C0 = fixed cost of every order of goods or the considered material
  • F = annual requirementses of the goods or the considered material
  • Qx = economic lottery or optimal amount to acquire every time


Figure n.1.4 – Course of the ordinazione costs

As it can be noticed the curve of the order costs has a decreasing course.
In how many such costs they are represents you for more from fixed costs (independent from the tidy amount); therefore their annual total diminishes to diminishing of the number of the orders.
After all, greater it is Qx, minor will be y1.

  • Note 1: based on the Look Back (to watch behind)
  • Note 2: based on the Look Ahead (to watch ahead)


The stock costs are constituted give: – financial burdens (or cost opportunity) on the invested them understood one in the supplyes; – costs of obsolescence and physical deterioration; – costs of warehousing and manipulation; – burdens insured to you. In the maintenance costs we consider only those proportional them to Q, therefore expenses does not generate them of warehouse (lighting system, movementation, administration, etc). The formula of the costs stock can therefore be expressed:


(unit cost of stock or value of the medium supply)

In which we indicate with:

  • m = unitary annual cost of stock (every cost for euro of goods or material lying in warehouse;
  • P = unit price of reported purchase to every physical unit of goods or material (price that is assumed does not vary to changing of the entity of the order);
  • grafico8= medium supply

In the following diagram the curve of the annual cost of stock is represented.


Figure n.1.5 – Course of the stock costs

This has an increasing course since is formed essentially from variable costs: their amount total grows to increasing of the supplyes. Therefore to increasing of a need, they increase the amounts that come ordered (grow the medium supply).
The function


deriving from the sum of the two sopraindicate functions it has its minimum in correspondence of the point in which the respective curves are met. Therefore the abscissa of such point will be found in correspondence of the Qx value.
Point in which the verification that y1 = y2.
With simple passages matemati to us (multiplying both the members for 2Qx and place the Qx tie > 0) is had:


It turns out therefore to be that:



Figure n.1.6 – economic Lottery of purchase

It can be noticed that the economic lottery grows to growing of the costs of order and the requirementses of supplying.
It is reduced, instead, to increasing of the cost of capital them.
Moreover to doubling itself of the requirementses of supplying (f) the economic lottery grows for an equal coefficient to grafico15

The same coefficient expresses the increase of the medium supply (Fehler!) and therefore of the maintenance costs, to demonstration of the existence of economies of scale in the operating costs of the supplyes.
They are found but some limits to the application of the formula of the economic lottery which concurs to optimize the operating costs of the supplyes give you to the relative parameters you to the price, to the costs of order, the cost of capital them, to the requirementses of supplying, in the presupposed one that these parameters remain constant to varying of the purchase lottery.
In truth, the value of these parameters can be modified in function of the acquired amount; it is the case of the purchase price, that it can be discounted in case of important lotteries; or of the shipping charges (comprised in the order costs), that they can grow if the purchase lottery exceeds one sure threshold.
In such case, the model of the economic lottery is not sufficient, alone, to giving solution to the dilemma of supplying. Sovente, because of the high dimension of the lottery of purchase or a reduced ability to delivery of the supplier, the refueling to the warehouses is not immediate but progressive.
In such case, the model of the economic lottery goes “fixed” because the medium supply will not be equaler to Fehler! , but to:
Medium Supply = Fehler!o Fehler!
where r it is the rate refueling (for time unit) and p is the rate withdrawal of money from the warehouse (for time unit).
The economic lottery becomes then:


Draft of a advanced value to that one in case of immediate refueling. In fact, in successive case of refueling progressive (see fig.), a part of the maintenance costs goes proportionally to weigh on the supplier (to the time of refueling), with obvious benefit for the purchaser.


Figure n.1.7 – progressive Refueling of the warehouses

In relation to the formula of the economic lottery of purchase:
to parity of requirementses (F), of unit costs of order and maintenance, assuming to adopt the model of the economic lottery of refueling, he is more convenient for an enterprise to resort to the refueling graduates them rather than to that immediate one. That is worth is for the maintenance costs that for the order costs. The refueling graduates them is then more convenient for the purchaser.
Very to see, in fact, the refueling graduates leads them the enterprise towards the JIT.


Figure n.1.8 – the management of the supplyes in atmosphere JIT

The situation limit is that one in which the rate refueling (r) he is little advanced or quite equal to the withdrawal of money rate (p). In such case, the materials that flow to the warehouse come immediately capture to you for being employ to you in the production. The supplyes stretch therefore to value ‘ zero ‘. Two modalities exist then in order to catch up the JIT and supplyes zero:

  • to reduce to 1 unit (or however to levels many bottoms) the purchase lottery, through the cost reduction of order;
  • to realize, whichever is the purchase lottery, a refueling graduates them synchronized with the withdrawals of money (r = p).


Figure n. 1,9 – progressive Refueling of the warehouses with rate little advanced refueling to the rate withdrawal of money (JIT)

In its theoretical version, the model of the economic lottery is a model of management of the supplyes to “fixed amount and fixed time”.
It in fact concurs to determine the amount to acquire and the number of refueling to carry out.
Dividend a period considered for the refueling number it is therefore possible to determine the interval of time elapsing between a refueling and that successive one. In absence of variability in the rates withdrawal of money (p) and the times of delivery (it is immediate it or it graduates them), the warehouse will assume the classic course ‘ to comb ‘.


Figure n.1.10 – Typical course to comb of the warehouse

In truth, the withdrawal of money rates can be famous in their medium dimension but to assume variable and unforeseeable values, in relation to the variability ‘ to go them ‘, that is in the rhythms of production and/or the question of market.
It can therefore happen that the warehouse is get exaustedded before or after the previewed one.
If the supplier has the flexibility necessary to react ready to the demands for the purchaser, not there will be problems for this last one.
The management of the supplyes will that is follow a model “to fixed amount and variable time”.

grafico19 grafico20

Figure n.1.11 – Course to “irregular comb”

The course of the warehouse then will be represented from a ‘ comb’ irregular one, with more driven in teeth hour (rates than withdrawal of money it elevates) hour more radii to you (reduced rates than withdrawal of money).
Often, but, the supplier does not have the ability to react immediately to the orders of the purchaser. It can that is have need of a period of time (cd. lead-Time of refueling) for ‘prepare’ the lottery of refueling for the successive delivery (that he could gradually then be made in only solution or).
Every purchase order goes then ‘launch’ with an equal advance payment to the lead-Time of refueling regarding the moment in which the delivery will have to happen, that is at the moment of the previewed exhaustion of the warehouse.
A delayed delivery would involve one undesirable situation of ‘ under supply’; an anticipated delivery would involve instead an uneconomical esubero of materials to supply.
The enterprise purchaser must therefore, holding account of the rates withdrawal of money from the warehouse, to estimate the moment in which the warehouse it will be get exaustedded, for being therefore in a position to launch a purchase order with an equal advance payment to the lead-Time of the supplier.
Of usual, the moment of the launch of the order comes identified with the attainment in warehouse of cd. the level of reorders.
Draft of the amount of materials necessary in order to that is guarantee the continuity of the withdrawals of money during the lead-Time (until the successive delivery).
Level of I reorder = rate withdrawal of money (p) * lead-Time + emergency supplyes

Figure n.1.12 – the management of the supplyes to economic lottery and level of I reorder.
hypothesis to) variability of the withdrawal of money rate


hypothesis b) variability of lead the Time

The rate withdrawal of money (p) taken to reference for the determination of the level of I reorder is of usual an estimated medium value on the base of the historical rates withdrawal of money.
The same time of delivery (lead-Time) is an only indicative and susceptible value often of changes (ritardi/anticipi) when the logistic reliability of the supplier is not total.
A management of the supplyes to level of I reorder cannot therefore eliminate of the all problem of the uncertainty. Having to anticipate the purchase order the buying enterprise is found in fact exposed to the risk of unexpected changes in the rates withdrawal of money and the times of delivery (lead-Time).
In order to avoid a “breach of the stock”, that is the undesired and anticipated exhaustion of the supplyes, the purchaser then will be forced to stop of the supplyes in esubero. These exceeding supplyes the normal requirements ‘ medie’ of the enterprise are said “emergency supplyes” and have the function to avoid undesired situations of “sottoscorta”, with the relati to you dangers of interruption of the production process and/or of lacked sales.
Their entity is proportional them to the degree of uncertainty inborn in the rates withdrawal of money and the duration of the lead-Time and to the intentional degree of emergency (level of service).
In the hypothesis that effective rate withdrawal of money and lead-Time second distribute around their medium value a Gaussian distribution, the optimal level of emergency supplyes is determinable through this expression:
supplyes of security(SS) =grafico23where:

  • with grafico24 it comes indicated the deviance standard of the rate withdrawal of money in a time unit;
  • with grafico25 it comes indicated the deviance standard of the lead-Time.

If a level of service of 100% is wanted to be assured, then the emergency supplyes will have to be equal to:
SSmax = pmax or LTmax
In case only the rate withdrawal of money or the lead-Time is subject to uncertainty, the formula is transformed, respective, in:


In the attempt to reduce the shipping charges, purchaser and supplier they can find convenient to pass from modality of refueling to fixed amount (economic lottery) to refueling modality to fixed time, where the parts establish in advance payment the moment of the delivery of the materials, fixing it, as an example, in coincidence of their periodic “turns supplying customers” or “turns”. The amount, that it will come specified with a sure advance payment regarding the delivery (that we will be able, for comfort, to indicate with the lead-Time term), will have to guarantee the regolarità of the withdrawals of money during all the interval of time between a refueling and the successive one. Famous the medium rate withdrawal of money for time unit, we can indicate with the term “level of reintegro” the amount of materials that will have to be present in warehouse to the beginning of every interval in order to assure one medium cover of the withdrawal of money necessities:
level of reintegro (L. RE.) = p o T + SS
where p it is the medium rate withdrawal of money for unit of time and T is the number of unit of time between a refueling and that successive one.
A supplying amount must be defined with an equal advance payment to the lead-Time regarding the moment of the delivery, and therefore will be determined: tidy amount = L.RE. – amount estimated in warehouse at the moment of the refueling where:
amount estimated in warehouse at the moment of the refueling = amount in warehouse at the moment of the launch of the order – withdrawal of money previewed during the lead-Time.


Figure n.1.13 – Method of management of the supplyes to fixed time.

Obvious that the tidy amount can only accidentally coincide with the economic lottery of purchase.
For how much it concerns, instead, the determination of the level of the emergency supplyes, is necessary to consider that the bind order the purchaser for an equal period to (lead-Time + T).
Il meant of refueling lead-Time is various here that in the refueling to fixed amount: draft simply of the time of warning with which the purchaser informs the supplier of the amounts to deliver. It can be be a matter of considerably inferior interval also to that one demanded from the supplier in order to prepare the delivery to variable time.
We can moreover think that fixing the time of the refueling in advance payment greater puntualità of delivery can be counted on one (hypothesis: absence of variability of the LT).
The formula for the determination of the optimal level of emergency supplyes is following:



The indices of the supplyes are important why they supply to the management give to you most important on which then basing the entire business strategy. In fact excessive or insufficient a level of supplyes can generate in the more serious cases the failure of the company, or, in the cases blandi to have undesired effects like: Problems caused from excessive supplyes:

  • obsolescence of the material presents in the supplyes
  • impossibility to take advantage of the variations of the market prices well, when these are taken place
  • erosion of the liquid understood one them in the case of excessive purchase, placing the company in one situation not to be in a position to making forehead to the obligation short
  • increase of sure costs like: interests on purchases, storage, assurances and necessity of widening of the warehouses

Problems caused from insufficient supplyes like: delays in the deliveries,under using of resources (personal and machinery), breaches of stock.
For one corrected management of the supplyes he is not sufficient to characterize the level of the emergency supply, to determine the economic lottery of purchase and the point of I reorder, but it must hold under control also the other most important factors, if not vital, for one oculata management as as an example the time in which the assets sostano the warehouse (duration of the cycle of I renew).
The parameter more used and effective in order to appreciate the speed of circulation of the goodses (duration of their cycle of I renew) is “the index of spin of the supplyes”.
This indicates the number of the times in which the suit happens renews of the stocks in a determined period of time.
Once calculated such index must interpret holding it account of the characteristics of the activity carried out from the company and of the assets that it deals.
The logical that a warehouse of an enterprise that perishable produced draft (es. yields) must have an index of spin higher than an other that features other category of goods (es. toys).
Is to easy comprise as an elevated index of spin is given to particular attention to this pointer since translate in minors understood is invested them in supplyes, minors costs financial, smaller operating costs of the warehouse.
To contrary, a low index of spin involves, beyond to those financial ones, other economic disadvantages represent from “risk factors” legacies to you to an eventual decrease of the market prices and to changes in the question (variation of the preferences of the consumers).
The calculation of the spin index can happen through two modality to second that takes in consideration physical amounts or values.
The method that uses physical amounts is calculated based on the relationship between the amounts sold or used in a data period of time and the amount of the recorded medium supply in the same period.


This formula allows to calculate the speed of renews of single goodses or single matters, or of groups of goodses or matters that can be expressed quantitatively with a common unit of measure, and is useful much in order to characterize which articles stretches to sostare too much to along in warehouse.
The medium supply can be calculated in 2 ways:

  1. (less precise method)grafico30
    The semisum of the existing amount to the beginning of the period () with that one in odd lot to the end of same (the Sf)
  2. (method with preciser approximation) grafico31 (method with preciser approximation)
    This has dividend for 13 the sum of the existence begins them (S1) and of the 12 consistencies found to the end of every solar month (S1+S2+… +S13).

This method to the first one is preferred when an analysis of the lyings in warehouse is wanted to be made and to characterize which articles they stretch to sostare too much to along in warehouse.
In order to perceive the rhythm of I renew of warehouse to total level or with reference to groups of assets whose amount to you they are expressed with unit of different measure, it is necessary to calculate the relative index of spin to the generality of the assets deals you from the company or to the complex of the articles that form a data merceologico group.
To such aim it is opportune to render homogenous between they give to you expressing them in monetary terms, that is of value.
In such case we will have:


Obvious the company leaves from the objective to maintain or to improve the index to the inside of the average of field: this is obtained mainly playing on the spin rate.
If the spin rate is low they can have problems of low movementation of the warehouse that can affect the cash flow.
If the spin rate is much high it could generate high risk of goods lack to sell.


‘ philosophy’ of famous management with the term Just-in-Time (JIT) the sight to obtain a managerial structure in which the enterprises purchasers are resupplied hardly of the materials of purchase ‘ in time’ in order using them.
A case of “exasperated” application of JIT is that one of the Toyota, than it is resupplied from its suppliers to 15-30 intervals minuteren.
In enterprises like this, the objective ‘ zero supplyes ‘ is not at all an utopy, but one concrete realization. This objective does not have but to be pursued at all costs and in any case: to here of the obvious problems of practical realizability, such operating condition can, in fact, not to be convenient on the economic plan.
In defining the own political of supplying the enterprises are found in fact to face true and just an economic dilemma, where the cost reduction of consequent maintenance to the reduction of the level of the supplyes implies a purchase lottery much bottom, with consequent increase of the costs of order and transport.
Of other song, the mininare of the order costs and transport demand a refueling in only solution, with onerous consequences on the level of the invested them understood one in the supplyes.
In other words it is come to create a relative paradox to the management of the supplyes. This is given from the fact that in one oculata management of the supplyes must conciliate 2 contrasting requirements: from a part, to maintain to high their level, in order to guarantee the satisfaction of the business requirements (production, maintenance..) in presence of possibi accelerations of the consumptions.
From the other, to diminish their level in order to reduce lessened the costs to connected they. In practical, wrong political of management would end with unbalancing the result of the management business financial institution.



The advantage of the electronic commerce is that one to cancel in virtual way the space and the time that separate to the question and the offer, widening, potentially the possibilities of business.
Because this is obtainable, it is necessary that the enterprises adapt the own strategies, structures and processes so as to to draw advantage from the new “enabling technologies”, avoiding that inner inefficiency and inabilities to adapt itself make useless the opportunities.
The various solutions that can be adopted in the within of the electronic commerce regard the type of relationship that establishes between vendor and buyer. A first type of solution is limited to realize a relationship of pure sale, supporting the execution of the transaction trades them.
Other solutions stretch to privilege the relationships of collaboration between more subjects, creating aggregations that have the scope to maximize the benefit through the development of common actions.
In the within of the development of the collaboration relationships the two models more innovated are the outsourcing of the purchase processes, and the sharing of the warehouse availabilities, through the constitution of Virtual³ Warehouse .
The application of the concept of integrated supply, together to the exploitation of the instruments puttinges to disposition of the communication and information tecnology, allows to manage in outsourcing, completely and in efficient way, the supply processes, reducing the costs of administrative type on the number of produced orders and allowing to benefit of the price reduction that the outsourcer obtains on the base of the volumes more customers (induced aggregation of the question).
Beyond to the traditional functions of purchase (sourcing, ordering and expediting), it can come offered the payment service, by means of the emission of an only invoice, raising the customer from the management of the number of relative payments you to supplying fine-supplier.
The Virtual Warehouse consists in the sharing of the availabilities of warehouse more companies that employ the same tipologie of materials or members and operate in a territorial within that renders the exchanges easy and economic.
The objective is the reduction of the equal supplyes presents in all the warehouses and the reduction of the surplus.
An enterprise will not physically have present in warehouse all the types of materials of which it needs, but it must some have however the immediate availability.
The Virtual Warehouse represents one reduction possibility costs, through the reduction of immobilizations, introducing one flexible management of the supplyes by means of their sharing with other subjects.
The operation is assured from an external subject, the Provider of service, which it has the visibility of the total supplyes and, through systems informed and managerial procedures dedicated to us, manages the warehouses calculating the necessities of the companies and the levels of redundancy of materials to the inside of the district.
The demands for material journey for the Provider that arranges supplying from an inner warehouse to the group of the adherent companies, or, eventually, from an external supplier.
The Virtual Warehouse needs of a information of common base to the enterprises participants and the adoption of procedures and protocols standard, so as to to have a complete homogeneity of they give to you uses you in the system.


Figure n.2.1 – Flow of supply in the outsourcing of the processes. Feature from www

Note 3: The term Virtual Warehouse has been coined from Dr. Marino Vincenzo, general executive manager UNITEC (sees Dictionary of the published Digital Economy from the Sole2ore).


In the time the technologies of the information have concurred the discouragement of the coordination and communication costs that frapponevano in passed to a efficient management of the dispersed economic activities territorial.
The technologies of the information above all introduce as coordination technologies whose primary effect is the support of the human resource with computer science.
A secondary effect of the reduction of such costs is the increase of the amount employed total of coordination. A lot in order to carry an example, the systems puts into effect them of reservation of the airplane concurs with the travel agencies to take in consideration with facility more possibility than flight for a customer, favoring therefore multiplying itself of special rates and reductions in price.
An other effect of the cost reduction of coordination is a tendency to the adoption of structures with greater coordinativo content and that they interest more enterprises with the performance of relationships of collaborativo type (make together).
At the moment of a sale of a sweater in a store in Italy, as an example, the recording of codes to bars could automatically activate the functions of order, delivery and production long all the row until the wool warehouse pertaining to the network situated in an other continent.
An other case of interaziendali nets constituted not only between suppliers and purchasers, but also between contenders is that one of a interaziendale consortium in which the enterprises put in common give to you, services, software and resources for a finalized common management to the discouragement of the costs and of waste.
Thanks to nets data transmissions the information on the question become available in real time, allowing the connected societies to manage the activities shared in more efficient and profitable way than how much it would be possible for the single agency.
All that door to international level to the creation of enterprises more and more concentrated on just core business and in a position to operating to total level or transnational resorting the market.
Based on the williamsoniana dichotomy of the make or buy, every organization must choose between producing to the assets and the services of which it has need or acquiring them to the outside.
To this purpose the analysis of Antonelli is interesting approximately the impact of the technologies of the information on the transaction and coordination costs.
The transaction and coordination costs are defined like costs of reception, treatment, appraisal, collection and transmission of the information care the ambient inside and outside to the enterprise.
In particolar way the coordination costs are defined as those relative costs you to the productive integrated relative activity and process control its, while those of transaction – therefore as defined for before the time from Coase – are give to you from the costs of use of the market.
Antonelli 4 introduces one riassuntivo outline to the aim to understand the effect of the new technologies on the dynamics evolution of such costs estimating some in such detail impact.
In the activity of coordination imbatte to us in costs deriving from situations of:

  • Limited rationality
    The limited rationality is caused from the extension of the amplitude of the control, with the consequent loss of efficiency in the supervision from part of the managers of the evolution of the enterprise activities. The technologies of the information render possible to recover, to elaborate and memorizzare information to a cost much more low and therefore to reduce the tie tax from the manual management.
  • Monitoring and shirking
    The activity of monitoring consists in a control of the single ones inputs of a production process to the aim to prevent possible shirking, that is that the marginal productivity falls under the cost of the input rendering the process inefficient. The introduction of the new technologies of information can above all reduce shirking and therefore the costs of the control (monitoring) when organizational units separated and situated in other countries are considered. In this way the control of the management is strengthened centers them on the peripheral units.
  • Creation of resources pad
    The multidivisional or matriciali structures can be considered an intermediate structure between the two institutional solutions of the market and the hierarchy, and in how much such they come defined like “pad” between the two ends. The multidivisional and matriciale reorganization renders to the enterprise mix an organizational one possible in which the costs of coordination and transaction, it compares to you with those between enterprises, are smaller. The introduction of the technologies of the information can ulteriorly reduce the incidence of such costs or carry to processes of organizational change of innovative type.
  • Federation
    The “federations” are defined like relations of complementarità tightened between buyers and vendors who establish themselves without to establish a effective vertical integration. Also the “federation” can be seen like intermediate organizational activity between the hierarchy and the market, solo that it represents, to the contrary of the “resources pad” one of the first steps of the process from the “market” towards the “hierarchy”. The introduction of the new technologies of the information will more and more favor delivering up itself of “federations” or relationships of informal cooperation between enterprises, also to outside from the national borders, thanks to the increased ability in the control at a distance of the production processes, to the improvements in the management of the input productive, the flows and the productive members, and to the reduction of the uncertainty on the quality and the terms of delivery of the intermediate products. We can then analyze the effect of the technologies of the information on the transaction costs:
  • opportunist
    Opportunismo is a effort in order to realize gain characterizes them through one lack of honest sincerity and in the transactions. The technologies of the information can reduce the asymmetry in the distribution of the information and therefore the advantage in the opportunistic behavior.
  • Relations of exchange
    With the new technologies of the information it is possible to extend the number of enterprises been involved in any transaction and therefore to avoid or to reduce the risks of the opportunistic behavior or the asymmetry of the information on both sides of the market. The technologies of the information render possible to increase substantially with the transmission abilities, that is the abilities to catch up enterprises localized in far markets and the elaboration abilities give to you, that is the ability to recover, to estimate and to reproduce information. As an example, thanks to the new technologies of the information the enterprises can try new suppliers or customers on the international markets, without increments meant to you in the costs for dealing the necessary information.
  • Information impactedeness
    Is a shape of asymmetry of information tied to two aspects: one relative specific acquaintance to a contract and not to one generic information; for the part with smaller information, to obtain acquaintance parity is expensive. The technologies of the information can only reduce the disadvantage deriving from according to aspect pulling down the costs of the information.
  • Imperfect nature of the acquaintance
    The acquaintance is a typical characterized public good from:
    as soon as it has not been made one discovered and disclosed, this last one can be extended to all the enterprises to null marginal costs;
    not escludibilità
    that is not possibility of exclusion of other subjects from the learning of the acquaintance.

In order to satisfy inefficiencies deriving from the lack of markets of the acquaintance and prices it appropriates to you, the enterprises stretch to create home markets in order to transfer the acquaintances.
The technologies of the information, to this purpose, can diffuse the acquaintance rendering it divisible, subdividing it in much bit of information.
As an example, the licenziatarie enterprises can replace the spreading of the acquaintance with a continuous flow, by means of connections on-linens of specific instructions and technical details without to find the key of the entire information.
The enterprises can choose if to take advantage of their internalizzandole in the home markets or transmit acquaintances through the direct selling on the markets of the licences and the licences avoiding the risk of the total spreading.
The technologies of the information can have effects meant to you on the technology transactions, reducing the imperfection of the markets.

Note 4: Antonelli – C. – technological Change and multinational enterprise: the role of the nets data transmissions in the total strategies, Milan: F. Angels, 1984.


The logistics covers remarkable importance in how much today is not more understanding like “the simple planning of the distribution and shipping charges”, but it is asserted more and more like lever strategic in order to face the market and to follow of the changes timely. The evolution of the logistics in the companies, ago yes that this is prevailed more and more like function of business integration that controls and governs all the management of the flows.
The “modern logistics” is taken care, in fact, of politics of supplying, the systems informed us of control, of the planning and the control of the materials, the warehousing, the movementation, the management of the stocks, the distribution and the international transportations. Becoming simpler the logistic work can be asserted that so that, raw materials, material, semifinished and finished products are available at the just moment in the just place and lessened cost.
Such objective is perseguibile if a flexible logistic process and to variable costs is put into effect of which the company it maintains the control strategic; trying moreover to terziarizzare to the maximum all those operating activities that came historically carried out to the inside of the company. From recent studies it carries out to you from A.T. KERNEY turns out that the total logistic cost (base 100) of a medium enterprise can be decomposed like follows: 15% managed costs to you; 23% stoccaggio costs; 21% magazzinaggio costs; 41% shipping charges.
An ideal image of company is that one in which the afflusso of raw materials exactly it is commisurato to the productive requirementses, and in which to they it turns the amounts of produced assets correspond in precise way to the demand for the market; a company where the refueling reaches the moment and the just place and that servant the customers with time and in the more favorable way.
A company therefore will not have supplyes, will not have lyings, will manage a large warehouse sufficient to because the flow of materials and goodses does not interrupt and it does not endure throttlings: that means to compress the times, to reduce the spaces, to pull down costs 5 .
3 past December has been introduced, near the faculty of architecture of the Polytechnic of Milan, the national Observatory on the transport goodses and logistics (ONLTM) promoted from Foundation BNC 6 and ISFORT 7 .
The presentation convention has been also the occasion for a round table on the logistics which some protagonists of the field have participated.
From the convention it is emerged that in the Italian within, the enterprises demonstrate to have comprised the advantages and the opportunities of the logistics, but are not still able, for several reasons, to make them own.
The evolution of the market of the logistics can be outlined with the below table (Tab 1).
Based on such table nearly the totality of the Italian enterprises is currently firm to the first phase.


Table n.2.1 – Evolution of the market of the logistics

The backwardness of the operating Italians is caused is from inner factors (small dimensions, insufficient ability to innovation, lowland internationalization) is external (infrastructural deficiencies, arranges formative lacunoso, insufficient free of some comparti).
However there are some marks them positi to you that they evidence an elevation of the level of logistic culture that is the main presupposed one for its evolution.
These mark them are represent to you from the greater interest of the enterprises towards the logistics like competitive factor and from the increase of the investments in the field.

Note 5: The managerial criteria relati to you to such arc constitute the total logistic system.
Note 6: National bank of the Communication.
Note 7: Advanced institute of formation and search for the transports.


To continuation of the adoption of the model of the Virtual Warehouse, the main achieved advantage drift from the reduction of the supplyes in warehouse.
The supplyes constitute for the enterprise an immobilization of understood them, therefore a passivity, and to continuation of their lessening it obtains an increase of liquidity, a widening of the possibility of new investments and a minor rerun to the indebtedness.
Moreover the supplyes involve of the operating costs: the optimization of the supplyes in warehouse is based on the elimination of the emergency supplyes, than in the greater part of an exercise they do not come used, but however stopped in order to make forehead to unexpected peaks of question.
As soon as junior clerk, the Virtual Warehouse, involves a lessening of the supplyes that the Unitec quantifies in approximately 20% and it does not exclude a greater percentage later on, when it comes applied a greater control on the supplyes.
The lessening of the supplyes ago yes that the same costs of storing (energetic rent local, costs, emergency) can be reduced, above all if the reduction of the supplyes is meaningful.
Moreover the Virtual Warehouse offers the possibility to group a high number of purchasers in a species of partnership, creating the possibility of dealing with the suppliers with greater power of dealing. Consequently it is possible to define to advantage of partnershp the conditions which price, amount, times, quality of the supply, than to the buying small they were not allowed.
It would be had, in other words, that one that is called “buyer aggregation”.
An ulterior advantage consists then in the possibility to know the amounts and the necessities of warehouse in real time, and the course of the months and the years to know lead Time of supplying of the supplies, allowing to manage in more effective and efficient way the warehouse.
Is to much difficult one to preview the fluctuations of the values of stock for small independent warehouses, that is those of the single enterprises, but is relatively easier to have the control on the course of the district warehouse, since it would be had to that to make with decidedly greater numbers. If to this analysis of the historical series) of the Virtual Warehouse had to be added to a precise and punctual control on the historical course (, function also of the merceologica tipologia would have a remarkable discouragement of the emergency supplyes ().
Finally, it must hold account of the fact that would be had to disposition, for the customer of the Virtual Warehouse, a remarkable increase of the availability and of the possibility of chosen of materials that otherwise would be much difficult one to have in warehouse normally. If as an example a particular type of store clerk had to be verified, than never it had not been preventivata, and that it has need of a special equipment, there would be an elevated probability that it is instead reperibile in the district comprensorio through the MV.
Perhaps its owner has made available it because he uses it very rarely, and therefore hopes to gain some of the profit rendering it available for other companies. All this mechanism of rationalization but, cannot ahead be carried to compartments ponds, but holding account of the sinergico effect of a total restructure, also it graduates them, but total of the district structure and to put hand to the business processes (Business Process Reengineering).
The fact to participate to a Virtual Warehouse involves ulterior advantages accessories which:

  • to eliminate the overhead managerial;
  • to diminish the structure costs;
  • to safeguard the atmosphere reducing the traffic generated from transports of along distance.

The adoption of the Virtual Warehouse, therefore, would allow to reduce managerial expenses (overhead managerial).
In fact, often account of the time that comes lost practically in the search of the material, in its choice, its purchase, in its resupply is not kept.
Without to speak about the ulterior time that comes lost when also in a single one of this it is made “administrative” they come to create of the difficulties. Often it must recommence all the process daccapo. To these died times, if of it they add other anchor, because they do not come takes advantage of the modern means to you that the technology puts to disposition.
These times “of office” are not free, but they come profumatamente pays to you “indirectly”, because who takes care itself of these bureaucratic passages cannot be operating and to dedicate to tasks more high added value. If these problems came resolved, even with the passage of the supplies to an only one outsourcer of supplyings, that it raises the acts to you from the bureaucratic relationships with the suppliers, an immediate improvement of the supplies would be had, for times and quality, but also of cost because all it is made of “passive” supplying they would come eliminated.
Very important to emphasize as through the Virtual Warehouse the result chased more tenaciously from the political of Inventory Management is caught up also, that is the reduction of the investments in the warehouse without to compromise the availability of the supplyes and therefore without to risk to lose upgrades them orders.
In the following figure it comes graphically represented the minimal amount of raw materials (expressed in value) that the traditional criteria of the Inventory Management must be present in a warehouse managed second, under which it is not possible to come down without to compromise the productive continuity.


Figure n. 2.2 – Level of service Optional (Execulink source, 2000)

That means that, diminishing the amount of supplyes under the “indicated minimum cost” in the diagram, it would be possible to obtain of the savings, to discapito, but, of crescents costs had to the loss of upgrades them sales.
Reducing excessive the supplyes, of other song, the enterprise would diminish its ability to produce to the amount and the quality of the goods demanded from the market (optimal service). In the diagram they are represented the curve of the operating costs of the warehouse (stockholding costs), that it turns out increasing to increasing of the availabilities of supplyes, and the curve of the costs deriving from upgrades them loss of orders (potential lost sales costs), which has an opposite course regarding the previous curve.
The optimal choice will be determined from the minimal point of the curve of the cost total (in red), determined from the sum of the costs of the others two.
The adoption of the Virtual Warehouse modification radically the hardly illustrated outline. Being the availability of the raw materials constantly assured in every moment from the outsourcer of service, the costs of upgrade them lacked sales, subiranno a sure lessening, than it will be translate in a appiattimento of the relative curve.


Figure n. 2.3 – Reppresent of the Potential low sales costs. (Unitec source, 2000)

At the same time the curve of the warehouse costs stretches to lower itself, in consequence of the fact that the amount of matters to store diminishes considerably, just because is not more necessary that the single enterprise of the district physically stops all the types of matters necessary to guarantee the productive continuity.


Figure n. 2.4 – Reppresent of the Stockholding costs. (Unitec source, 2000)

The combination of the movements of the two curves involves the modification of the position of the curve of the cost total that will be lowered and it will be moved towards right.


Figure n. 2,5 – Reppresent of the Potential lost sales cost & service Optimal (Unitec source, 2000)


The continuous search of the reduction of the supplyes to the inside of every business truth (fig. A), has caused but, which directed consequence, a spropositato numerical increment of the operations of supplying and, therefore, of the relati to you costs to they associates (fig. B ).


Figure n. 2.6 – Evolution in the time of the supplyes, supplyings and costs (Unitec source, 2001)

With the solution of the integrated supply and the Virtual Warehouse offers from UNITEC instead, a possible point of equilibrium between the minimal level of the supplyes is studied (calculated based on uses of same in relation to the business productive ability and the time of escape of the orders from part of the suppliers) and the relative number and cost you to supplyings (fig. C).


Figure n. 2.7 – Relation optimal between supplyes and number of supplyings.



Before passing to analyze in specific the performance of the model of the Virtual Warehouse to a practical case it is of obligation to illustrate the theoretical bases and the economic context in which it it has been developed.
To such purpose 3 arguments are introduced of continuation which: the cluster industrial, outsourcing and the production processes.
The paragraphs that follow do not have the presunzione to expose the arguments deal to you in their interezza, but to only emphasize of some fundamental aspects, whose understanding justifies and confirms the resource to the Virtual Warehouse.


The Italian productive apparatus is constituted in prevalence from enterprises of small and average dimension. One of its fundamental characteristics is integration of the enterprises to the inside of “district” the so-called areas that mitigate the effects denied you of the meager dimension on the business efficiency and the competitive ability to the system.
The “cluster industrial one” defined in Italy “industrial district” can be considered like a “territorial concentration” of small-medium enterprises with emphasized specialization in the manufatturieri fields, which, in virtue of the relations between they and the role carried out from the external atmosphere in the transmission of the know-how specific and the values of the industrial job, succeed to produce in efficient way and to compete on the markets with enterprises of greater dimension “.
In our Country the acknowledgment and the regulation of the industrial districts the birth of the phenomenon has happened with much delay respect, through the 5 Law October 1991, n. 317:
” Art. 1. Purpose of the law and definition of small enterprise. The present law has the purpose to promote the development, the innovation and the competitiveness of the small enterprises, constituted also in shape cooperative… ”
The main scope legacy to the birth of the industrial districts is that one to favor, in zones with determined economic characteristics, the creation and the development of productive activities in the fields of the industry and the services.
Multiple they are the criteria that can be use you in order to define the “cluster industrial one”. Consequently it is not possible to characterize the present exact number in Italy. To second of the used definition and the parameters chosen (geographic, legal or economic) the result of the varied esteem in meaningful way. The economic disciplines teach that the small enterprises, alone, are not in a position to competing on the international markets. Nevertheless it turns out obtained to you from the small-medium enterprises pertaining to industrial districts seem to refute in such full load affirmation. That is possible in how much the competitiveness of such enterprises is strengthened from the interrelations and from the ties that are settled down on the territory in force of the common sector specialization and the concentration it spaces them. This productive model, until little time makes typical of the Italian truth, is being diffused in the manifacturing industry on world-wide scale. The tendencies in action show, in fact, an entrepreneurial guideline face more and more to favor the relations between enterprises. Such relations, from hierarchical structures are evolvendo towards more flexible shapes in a position to facing the changes better acclimatize them and of market. The enterprises that operate in the districts base their competitiveness on:

  • smaller costs of some productive factors and services between which supplyes, reciprocations, workings of small series;
  • benefits legacies to the critical mass of the characteristic activities which: river basin of laborers and technicians with particular competences, technical schools, depuratori centralizes to you, net of shippers, assemblers, image of the territory like center of excellence;
  • facilitation of all the activities connected to the innovation: circulation of information, prototypes, creativity, fairs;
  • propitious climate to the constitution of new enterprises: entrepreneurial plans realize to you without to demand necessarily investments in all are made of the production process, experiences are diffused, confidence from part of the other enterprises in supplying raw materials or working $R-on account thirds party….

The industrial district demonstrates moreover of being an ideal atmosphere in order to start and to cultivate relationships collaborated to you finalizes to you to increase the competitiveness ulteriorly thanks to:

  • collaboration climate that is created to local level between local agencies, mayoralties and associations of category like investments in infrastructures, not conflict industrial relations;
  • collaboration between concurrent enterprises also between of they that they stretch to assume, more often than how much does not happen outside from the districts, attitudes cooperated to you;
  • understood them social collective which: mutual confidence, interpersonal relations, nets of friends who facilitate the circulation of information….

The development and the concentration of many activities can but generate, beyond to benefits, also costs and diseconomie tied to:

  • congestion (traffic, prices of the building areas,..);
  • pressure on the job offer (rare of professional figures,..);
  • changes in the system of the values (clouding of the entrepreneurial, young energies that orient the own professional careers towards other fields);
  • logistic, administrative and structural redundancies.

But from it turns out to you finds the advantages to you exceed the disadvantages decidedly. There is but to evidence that after years of favorable conjuncture, the situation of the industrial districts is evolvendo quickly. Globalization, concentration and movement of the barycentre of the productive rows towards the distribution are having an impact consisting on the districts and the effects are evidenced on international the competitive scene.
Many industrial districts that until little years ago were resolutions to riposizionare the own offer in the competitive markets you, hour are in obvious difficulty. From they give you of the last years on the quotas in the world-wide commerce, for Italy evidences one bending; and the phenomenon has endured an acceleration in last the two years.
In effects the advantages deriving from localization more and more stretch to lose weight themselves above all for via of use of new technologies and the employment of Internet.
Moreover the extremely favorable role, played until today from the space and geography comes to reorganize itself considerable. These changes seem to place in argument the sostenibilità of the model that until today has contraddistinto the Italian economic development: that one of the industrial districts bases on one territorial and local connotation strongly to you. Probably a not secondary part of the uneasiness depends on a not fluid relationship between the enterprises of the districts and ITC 8 .
Pack-saddles to think that the medium incidence of computer science expenses on the turnover of the companies is equal to 1,55%. Moreover 61.4% of the enterprises are declared not satisfied of the own information. Very various what happens in the other countries industrializes to you European, which try to take advantage of to the maximum the services innovated you of communication with the objective to support their Core business.
According to the relationship Fair 9 , these societies belong mainly to three groups:

  • small and averages enterprises of the fields high-tech and average, guide to you from the attraction that settles down between theirs business via Internet and the developments of new markets;
  • cyberimprese that take advantage of the opportunities offered from the electronic commerce in the fields of the services;
  • small and averages enterprises integrated to the inside of the supply chain of the great companies pushed to the innovation from the pressure of their main customers.

The industrial districts of our country must make broken off towards the electronic commerce, above all in its shapes B2B, creating the so-called the “virtual districts”.
The idea is to use Internet and the modern technologies in order to concur with the PMI better supplying than raw materials and sharing of resources.
In “the traditional” concept of cluster, the instruction and the technology often have had a marginal role. Hour the things are changed and are just these the elements on which heading in order to find again new cues for I throw again of the district competitiveness.
It demonstrates the fact that the new ones “cluster” are emerging in the peripheral areas where these factors are abundant 10 .
To emphasize but that although the changes to which is subordinate the cluster, this always remains and however a “business community”, the true change and just regards the market which is evolvendo from physical market to virtual market.
The importance of the passage from physicist to virtual seems to have been picked from the Unitec which is proposing with succeeding its last product: the Virtual Warehouse.
Already some entrepreneurial truths, as as an example those pertaining to the district of the marble of Massa-Carrara have experimented with optimal turn out to you this model.
With it the concept of cluster, comes resumed, widened and stravolto at the same time.
Watching to the past, the evolution in the techniques of management of the production has been substantially oriented to reduce such costs.
That has had above all through one the greater integration between the subject presents in row 11 .
Well hour this integration comes paradoxicalally extended the “contenders”.
Of other part to the districts it is demanded (if it does not set up) a more and more extreme shape of integration for being able to conserve the own margins of competitiveness in the comparisons of the enterprises of greater dimensions.
It is necessary that is that single the enterprises put into effect one effective sharing of resources. In past attempted of the sort they have produced to you insufficient turns out to you in how much the enterprises have had fear to lose that managerial autonomy and operating that they always give it has contraddistinto the versatilità of the PMI. This has been had above all when the sharing regarded supplyings of strategic products, through which such enterprises are in a position to offering to the own customers, that added value that succeeds in contraddistinguere the company from direct competition 12 .
To the day today such impediments are not more concurred. It is because like already said it is a lusso that the PMI cannot be more granted. It is because the new technologies of information and communication offer the possibility of sharing of the information, of goods and services, also conserving one own single identity.
The proposal of Unitec is that one to make to work the entire district like if it were an only “composed entity” from the various enterprises participants, whose management of determined common activities but, comes entrusted to a specialistic and neutral operator regarding all the companies of the district.
These will have the task to centrally assure and to guarantee the transparency for all the participants to the plan supplying, to the activities of management shared. Therefore making that one pursued from every single enterprise it will not be more an egoistic economic advantage, but an advantage of paretiano type.
Moreover the Unitec supports that such solution can be applied with not advanced equal advantages if to other truths that introduce analogous aspects to those of the districts.
In fact in the understood one happened them reference to the application of such model to a sanitary district will be made to you.

Note 8: Information Communication Technologies.
Note 9: The Fair relationship is a relationship on the IT that every year a consortium of investigators stila for the European Union.
Note 10: For example, in the South of Italy the area of Naples in the field of Internet business.
Note 11: Enough to think next to the JIT.
Note 12: Fabio Ulgiati 2001, Evolution of the relationships Business to Business between small and averages enterprises, University la Sapienza, Roma.


The model of the chain of the value disaggrega the enterprise in its main activities, in order to comprise if and in which measure they concur to determine of the competitive advantages you.
The term “chain” that is makes reference to a series of activity between they tied from sequenziali interdependences (from relationships of input-output, like rings of one chain), but technologically distinguished.
The term “value” makes instead reference to the created value favor of the customers, than in its turn it determines the competitive position of the enterprise. The chain of the value visualizes the value total created from the enterprise distinguishing some two elements:

  • the activities generatrices of the value;
  • the profit margin.

The profit margin is given from the difference between the value total and the all in cost in order to carry out the activities value generatrices. The created value drift from the ability to the product (or service) to activate an ulterior process of creation of the value to the level of the chain of the value of the purchaser well: it is ightening it from tasks that these do not mean to carry out directly, for being able itself instead to concentrate on the activities where it possesses a comparative advantage; she is “mobilitando” the customer, that is helping it to make things that it could before not have made or to make them better.
The value creation implies therefore one movement of attention from the product to the customer: the enterprise considers if same a support system, that is an entity that operates in how much able one to help the customers to create value and succeeding for if same and the own customers.
From the point of view of the customer, how much as soon as said it means that they are offered and the enterprises not to compete on the market, because they are offered and the enterprises not to enter in its process of creation of the value.
The activities generatrices of the value can be subdivided 13 in primary activities and activities of support.
They are primary activities in a manifacturing enterprise (production of assets):

  1. supplying and management warehouses of input 14 ;
    it comprises – beyond to the activities of refueling of input (matters, parts, members) – the management and the control of the warehouses and the programming of the transports;
  2. production;
    it comprises the workings in workshop, the processes of assemblage, the maintenance of the machinery, the management of the systems and inner the logistic activities of 15 ;
  3. physical distribution 16 ;
    it comprises the magazzinaggio of the finished products, the management of the delivery carriers, the elaboration of the orders, the programming of shipments;
  4. marketing and sales;
    it comprises the management of the sale force, the control of the distributive channels, the management of marketing mix;
  5. services accessories to the customers;
    draft of activity of supply of services apt to improve or to maintain the value of the product: installations, repairs, training, supply of reciprocations and accessories.

Those activities are support activity that do not contribute directly to the creation of the value, but that they are however necessary to the total operation of the enterprise and to the effective development of the primary activities:

  • infrastructural activities;
    which comprise multiple activities the director general’s office, the planning and control, the administration, the finance, public relation, and all the services generate them.
  • R&S – research and development;
    the activities of development of the tecnologicoaziendale patrimony comprise all.
  • management of the human resources;
    it comprises activity like the recruitment and the selection of the staff, the training and the formation, the definition of the retributive political and the programs of career and development, the industrial relations.

If an enterprise enjoys a durably advanced profit to that one of the contenders that it means that the costs that it supports for the complex of the managed activities of value affect the revenues in structurally inferior measure to how much happen for the competition. That can be taken place for two various reasons:

  1. smaller costs to parity of prices: that is cost advantage;
  2. smaller prices to parity of costs: that is differentiation advantage.

The configuration of the chain of the value becomes therefore the model of reference for the government of the same, useful ASA is in order to define the participations to bring to the order in being of the ASA that for monitorare differentiates them competitive regarding the contenders. Some principles useful are identified to orient the search of one configuration of the chain of the coherent value with the ambita position of competitive advantage. It is opportune to analyze every activity under two profiles:

  1. under the profile of the strategic importance: draft to take an examination the importance that every activity introduces regarding the pursued competitive advantage so as to to distinguish between those mainly critical and those that carry out an only accessory role.
  2. Under the profile of the inner competence: draft to identify the level of ability, is puts into effect them that it upgrades them, with which an enterprise is in a position to managing every activity.

To such care, some elements particularly important to take in consideration are: the acquired experience, technological and competitive dynamics. Moreover it must hold account that every activity is interested from a various degree of turbulence in relation to dynamics of the competitive forces that are involved it: technological developments, normative evolutions, competitive motion. How much more elevated it is the accumulated experience from the enterprise and at least it is put in argument from technological dynamics and competitive, the much most solid one can be considered the competence of the enterprise in one determined activity and much more it will have the opportunity or the interest to garrison it directly. The combined consideration of the two profiles examine you, strategic importance and inner competence, concurs therefore to identify some principles useful to orient the configuration of the chain of the value. The principles that orient the chain of the value are following:

  1. The important activities from the strategic point of view and for which the enterprise has one elevated inner competence are destined to represent the fundamental nucleus of the chain of the value of the enterprise in one determined ASA.
  2. The activities in which the enterprise have one elevated inner competence, but that they do not represent importance from the strategic point of view, they constitute instead the only appropriate case in order to try the described roads. More in particular two are the fundamental addresses of which they can form object: the exploitation and the transformation in ASA;
  3. The important activities from the competitive point of view and for which the company introduces one weak person inner competence constitute a delicate problem much: their criticità would push the enterprise to take control directly of, to the aim to have of a sufficiently sure garrison; of other part the insufficient affinity that they introduce with know how and the distintive competences of the enterprise renders probable highly that the efforts in order to take control of end for being an investment without return. In such situation, two are the distances masters in order to exit from the impasse: the acquisition and the pertnership. In the impossibility to develop it directly, the enterprise can acquire the competence that needs to them from thirds party that the posseggono. An alternative to the acquisition of the competences consists in establishing stable relationships of pertnership, that is structural agreements of collaboration and along period, with searched partners equips you of the competence. Such alliances can assume various shapes, from the assumption of a participation of minority to the constitution of joint-lucks, to the make of contracts trade them pluriennali.
  4. For the activities, than beyond not having strategic importance, the opportunity not to decide of inner structures to dedicated they is introduced also less analogous to the competences of the enterprise is obvious, but to leave them to enterprises third. Regarding the alternative between make or buy, they represent the opposite case to the activities dealt in point 1: for those the consequent choice is the management diretta(make); for these the purchase from the esterno(buy). Two therefore are the main addresses of government of such activities: disinvestment and political of purchase. The turbulence imposes to the enterprise to focus its energies on the more important activities, avoiding than to disperse them in too many directions.

The chain of the value can be constructed also with reference to not manifacturing enterprises (like the enterprises of services), with some opportune adjustment in the categories over introduced. It is worth the following fundamental principle: the activities would have isolated and to be separated that have logical various economic, that they possess a high impact, also upgrade them, on the differentiation, or that they represent one meaningful portion of increasing cost and.

Note 13: Model of Porter.
Note 14: That one that Porter defines “logistics in entrance”.
Note 15: That one that Porter defines “management of the supplyes and the transports.
Note 16: That one that Porter defines “logistics in escape”.


The disciplines that have operated on the topic of the nets are numerous: economy, engineering, computer science, operations research, sciences of the organization. The term nets alludes in fact to concepts and the most various applications: nets data transmissions, nets of processes, nets of relations, nets of acquaintances, nets of enterprises, nets of enterprise and territories, and a lot other. The term insomma is used in specific way in order to indicate every risen of logon.
The problem is that many of these are logons parallels, is intercrossed and they are interlaced in the operation of the social and economic systems. Many diatribe between various schools have been determined from the sottolineatura of one or the other aspect, more than from various theoretical systems.
Omitting to enter in the specific one of such theoretical currents, the essential condition for the constitution and survival of a district net strategy shared and pursued from the members of the net is the existence of one.
A common strategy involves one total cost reduction through the attainment of attainable economies through the centralization of the requirementses of the various customers and industrial fields.
Draft therefore of the possibility to obtain savings is from the optimization of the business processes is on the pure purchase price.
Any shape of sharing demands but, the passage of some powers (decisional and economic) from the single enterprises to a governmental authority of the entire group. In order to plan and to manage a “district net” it is necessary that two conditions are come true:

  • to) that a strategic agency exists that cargo to conceive and to realize this plan is made. To second of the conditions this agency it can be a ” committee of private-public government 17 “, an entrepreneurial group of reference 18 , one medium “district enterprise” (Varaldo), one great enterprise or other.
  • b) That the net is put in condition of:
    • to control the “net of the value”;
    • to manage the net processes;
    • to generate and to develop are inner organizational units that operate like “nearly enterprises”, are economically self-sufficient enterprises (“vital nodes”);
    • to shape, to select and to hold assets the multiple logons between inner organizational units and external enterprises (“net logons”);
    • to develop together: a hierarchical structure, a market, an informative system, a logistic system, a system of communication, a culture, a political system (“composite structures and coexisting”);
    • to develop a government system.

It is from evidencing that on the inside of the district, such agencies start plans of change of the productive and social system of a territory that organizational structures of new conception have for object.
For the constitution of a district net there are four theses:

  • to) the necessity of some mechanism of governance does not exist;
    b) enterprise is one guides;
  • c) is one district enterprise;
  • d) variety of shapes of governance exists one, the some most effective ones other less to second of the territories and the production processes.

Of the hypotheses indicated does not exist a better solution in absolute, in how much will be the search on the district that will give one answer to this question.
An ulterior alternative, that it seems to demonstrate itself valid, is represented from the possibility to entrust the governance logistic to an external specialistic operator to the district, therefore to resort to the outsourcing.
In fact currently on the market valid ones are present some outsourcer specialize to you in a position to being able to put into effect and to manage a district net succeeding to achieve optimal turns out to you more taking advantage itself of evolute the computer science technologies.
Facing the topic of the district nets it does not have to forget that the main one gap between great and small enterprises is represented from the impossibility of the second ones to obtain economies of scale.
Therefore the resource to an aggregation in an industrial net from part of the PMI concurs they is to overwhelm such gap, is of being able to use technologies of which they could not have have ud of operating singularly.
Of other part the more and more increasing interest towards the computer science applications seems to push the guideline of the PMI towards such solution, pack-saddles to think next to the fact that the business processes more and more have place on the net of telecommunication and in particular on WEB 19 .
Moreover the logistics and the new technologies of net, constitute of the true and own strategic infrastructures through which, above all the PMI, can redesign own productive organization WEB 20 .
The flow of the assets between the various places of production needs of new instruments actions to reduce the operating barriers that traditionally have represented a limit to the development of the economic activities of the PMI on total scale. The new conception of the logistics, thanks to the new technologies, allows to the enterprises of being able to undertake previously unthinkable integrating political.
The logistic organization above all assumes a competitive strategy for all those small and averages enterprises and of local the productive systems (districts).
But for the enterprises of smaller dimensions in which there is lack of means, infrastructures, resources and technologies apt to guarantee the perseguimento of such strategies to low costs, the evolution of the logistics risks to tradursi in a threat rather than in an opportunity.
This above all for the difficulties inborn in the sharing of resources between more companies and in particular way to the inside of those definable districts like competitive, that is where between the same enterprises it turns out particularly difficult, to organize a ” game of square 21 “.
To the aim of the constitution of a district net, an ulterior element of analysis not to underrate is that one played from the “new role of the purchases”.
The extension of the processes to the outside of the enterprise with the consequent involvement of the suppliers to the inside of the structure of business, the redefinition of supply chain with the transfer to the suppliers of the greater responsibilities and risks, the necessity to employ standard trades them, the new possible models of supply with the e-business, modifies in substantial way is the way to operate that the business role of the purchases.
The responsibility of the management of the higher quota the supplying costs and a park that, fact, conditions the technical and operating result of the company, shapes the “Function Purchases” like one of the levers of the business of the enterprise.
In this changed scene, the “Function Purchases” must face the evolution of its role, from operating executrix of the indications of the user, to compartecipe of the attainment of turns out to you generates them of company, through the realization and management of the supply chain, the redefinition of the supply processes, the political realization for the alliances, the development of market ability intelligence, the development of coherent strategies with objects you to it of business business.
Inner question, market of the offer, processes and operating structure of the system of supplyings are the levers on which the management can act in order to maintain the control of the expense and the induced inner costs from supplyings. The attainment of the total economic objective is not assured solo from the governabilità of these levers, but it depends also on the real ability to use them.
In order to adapt the function to the new tasks it is necessary, for every company, to follow a distance that, characterizes you the force points and of weakness of the system it puts into effect them, it defines the actions to second complete a plan adapted to the characteristics of the specific truth, in terms of tipologia and modality of performance. It turns out obtained to you with partial participations or only starts to you on the base of specific requirements or sector they are not generally mantenibili in the time if it has not been developed the ability to government of the levers of management 22 .

Note 17: Like to Prato in the ’80
Note 18: Like to Biella (Locke)
Note 19: The case of: purchases, inner communications to the company, interaziendali information…
Note 20: Fabio Ulgiati 2001, Evolution of the relationships of Business to Business between small and averages enterprises, University la Sapienza, Rome
Note 21: Coro’ Giancarlo and Agostino Zeno, in “From the systems of the transports to the logistic organization”, Relationship on the logistics, Chamber of Commerce of Mantova, I reach 2001
Note 22: From


The concept of industrial district has been ampliamente faced from multiple economic students which in exposing you of their analyses turns out has emphasized some is the limits that the advantages.
Detaching from such theoretical systems and examinee the industrial districts in the light of the modern technologies emerge new elements of analysis.
In the first place we take in consideration the competition that is developed between equal enterprises, that is enterprises that work the same product and carry out the same activity.
Such competition contributes from a part to confer to the system a detached dynamism, in fact the enterprises are stimulated to search and to adopt the less expensive productive solutions, engaging generally in one modest but profitable activity of search of new innovative solutions.
From the other competitive dynamics inner to the district door to shapes of latent or manifest confrontation, which, although has had until today a positive effect to level of system, also has determined in the entrepreneurs one strongly aversion to all that that it can have the minimal appearance of collaboration or of explicit cooperation with the other district actors who directly are not been involved in complementary shape in the just network productive one.
That is revealed harmful for those political, typical of the logistic activity, than they are based mainly on the aggregation of flows operated you of various enterprises, and on the consequent scope and obtainable economies of scale.
Not to case, many proposals that in past have been been left over in this direction have had little followed.
Like already emphasized, the industrial district expresses the own advantages if to its inside net of interrelations between all is come to create one the actors of the row. Translate in other words: in the districts remarkable economies could themselves be obtained sharing in organized way the resources and information available.
In an industrial district the same technologies are used, the same productive systems, the same reciprocations, the same raw materials, the same maestranze and potentially the same logistics.
Analyzing the costs that are generated to its inside, we see that the single enterprises potentially face the ” same costs of structure “, but in way it characterizes them.
Adding all the costs of structure of the single companies a cost of area of the industrial pole is obtained.
Therefore the existence of a pluralità enterprises generates a pluralità of operating costs, creating unavoidablly to the inside of the district of duplicates to you structural.
Considering that in a district of 50 Km of beam exists 400 companies medium participants to the same chain of the value, the ” redundancies ” it is managerial that structural generated are enormous.
Such it wastes till now, could not be avoids to you.
Today instead, with the aid of the new technologies of net and the new logistic modalities, it is possible to take part drastically on these redundancies reducing them and therefore to avoid “wastes” and recovering economic resources, you space and structures and to obtain an increase of the competitiveness of the single enterprises.
The ideal solution in order to obtain such turns out to you is represented from integration of the single enterprises in one district net.
The fact to exercise the own activity to the inside of a district net without a shadow of doubt favors the attainment of better levels than efficiency delegating at ” authority centers them 23 ” many managerial problems.
Moreover such solution is ideal for being able to prime economies of scale. That would be possible in virtue of one common centralized strategy to take advantage of one management of the collective activities.
A sharing plan, concurs therefore with said enterprises, to eliminate it wastes and to obtain new revives economic.
The Unitec proposes the application of such strategy to the management of the warehouses. To the inside of every industrial warehouse a sure amount of materials is normally present, profits to guarantee the productive continuity above all in case take place unexpected or peaks of question.
In case of I make unusable but, such supplyes, must be discharged without that never they have been used, creating therefore shapes of economic waste (tasks also to the cases connected to the substitution of the systems and/or obsolescence of the members).
And then as to avoid such it wastes of inner resources to the district? Many problems could be resolved, even with the passage of the supplies of the single enterprises to an only one outsourcer of supplyings which promotore of the cited common strategy would be made.
Moreover the outsourcer an immediate improvement of the supplies would raise the enterprises from the bureaucratic relationships with the suppliers obtaining, for times and quality, but also of cost because all it is made of ” passive” supplying they would come eliminated.
Riepilogando the redundancies that unavoidablly are introduced to the inside of a district are born from the fact that even if the enterprises pursue the same aim (discouragement of the costs) make it acting individually.
It turns out to you very various would be being been pursuing objects to you inquadrabili in an optical of optimal paretiano, that is heading to an advantage collective (of district) and not egoistic.

Note 23: In such case one refers to the aggregation more enterprises to us coordinated from a subject superpartes.


Also in the case of the outsourcing it is not possible to supply a definition univoca in how much, in the time, many students have supplied to express one own vision of time in oriented time to put in prominence particular aspects.
However the general concept can be expressed in extremely synthetic shape, describing the outsourcing like that process that door to the “acquisition from an external supplier of products or services currently turning out from the directed productive activity and of inner management of the company”.
In the Anglo-Saxon Countries and in particular in the United States the outsourcing it has acquired reputation as a result of the economic crisis of years eighty: some giants of the automotive industry, whose dimensions had become also for effect of the development of complementary areas Core-business abnormal, just adopted like fundamental solution to the problem of the book keeping reorganization the outsourcing.
The principle was simple: to make to make the others that that they make better than we, in such way to reduce the costs, to improve the quality of the services or the intermediate products of which need is had, and to free therefore the necessary resources for the development of that it constitutes the true activity of enterprise.
Currently such manageriale practice assumes a fundamental importance in the picture of the great transformations that are being taken place in the organization of the enterprises and their strategies above all with the advent of the New Economy.
Then it acquires more and more importance knowing to concentrate the business efforts on the processes that demand distintive/differenzianti effectiveness and competences, delegating to thirds party “the efficient” of the other processes and their continuous riallineamento to the changing requirements of just business.
That concurs also to realign the own organization on configurations to breakeven much more low, risking much less in the moments than crisis of just the field of market.
This objective goes pursued systematically and with determination, in order to obtain the maximum variable of the fixed prime costs.
Such processes 24 in the moment in which exsternalyzer like, must guarantee the ability continually increase of their efficiency, but also that one of a continuous adaptation to the changing operating requirements of our processes of business (volumes, mix, type of performance).
The outsourcing it transforms of fact a marginal activity, carried out in little efficient way in the within of an enterprise, in the main activity (Core business) of an other.
Often to delegate to external suppliers the management of such activities constitutes the only practicable way in order to catch up the obbiettivo and to concentrate itself on Core business.
The figures implied in the outsourcing are essentially three: beyond to the enterprise that esternalizza the own activity, we find again the provider (or vendor or outsourcer) and the enterprises to which the provider address.
The figure centers them is other the provider, that is that enterprise that engages to supply the assets and the services demands, in the times wishes you to the enterprise that has esternalizzato the activity.

Note 24: Reference to those of support to the activities of business true is made just.


An always greater number of enterprises is today muovendo towards the adoption of the instrument of the outsourcing.
The positive consequences in along and in the short period today recognized and find to you are rather important.
In the first place, the resources of the enterprise can be concentrated in those activities that represent the business main of the enterprise, avoiding of having to invest in secondary activities that oltretutto, in order to catch up levels of absolute competitiveness, would need of huge investments, however not justifiable from it turns out adapts to you proportionally to you.
Moreover the flexible of costs would be obtained that normally are fixed: leaving to manage the supplies to a provider that one will be able to be only acquired of which need is had and in the moment in which if of it it has truly need.
In particular tasks of how much the immobilized understood one them could be reduced, to times also for long periods of time, in raw materials and semifinished ones if one political of outsourcing were adopted of the supplies.
Esternalizzando the secondary activities to Core business, the inner, operating and managerial structures, become more snelle; draft not to only reduce the costs (as an example of the administration and the processes of control), but also to render the more ready and flexible structure to changing of the market requirements.
Secondary positive consequences not sure, fall back then on the staff who comes some valued: more not engaged in jobs than ruotine, the professionality can be concentrated mainly on the focali aspects of its activity, improving reasonably; the enterprise can approach technologies otherwise precluse, obtaining precious information; the provider it can participate to the definition of the needs and the requirements of the enterprise: thanks to the modularity of the outsourcing, and, to second of contracts stipulate to you, are possible to extend the business areas of participation, to change the type of offered service, or parallel reduce, to changing of the requirements of the enterprise. The quality of the services offers and the supplied products stretches to improve because the provider it stretches to insert in the ” basket ” of the suppliers to which it addresses, only those enterprises that assure qualitative standards elevate you to you: also for this it is important to make reference to a vendor of consolidated experience and professionality.
To demonstration of said how much, it comes brought back a surveying carried out from the Outsourcing Europe on a champion of enterprises of all the world that are entrusted to the outsourcing. It is found, between the other, than:

  1. 87% declare that the BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) allow they to concentrate $R-al.meglio on the competences to greater added value (Core business);
  2. 76% declare to have found, thanks to the BPO, a considerable increment of efficiency without having some necessity to ulteriorly invest in staff and technology;
  3. for 66% of the enterprises interviewed, the political adoption BPO has helped in important way their enterprise to increase its ability to produce profit, with positive glares you on the value of the actions. Here of continuation reassuming comes brought back a table containing indicative rather on the benefits finds to you on total base from the interviewed world-wide enterprises.


Table n. 3.1 – the benefits of the outsourcing find to you on a champion of international enterprises [ Outsourcing Europe, 2000 ].

So that outsourcing the developments as technical of business management it is necessary that they are satisfied, between the other, two conditions: before it has objective character and it consists in the presence on the market of operating sufficiently professional and specializes to you, that they guarantee a efficient accomplishment of the function to esternalizzare; the second one has instead more subjective nature and regards the overcoming from part of the management social of several psychological impediments, in particular the fear of a ” professional automatic reorganization”.
Of these two aim the greater obstacle to the implementation of the outsourcing are represented from the resistances of every kind that are met to all the levels of the business hierarchical structure beyond that trade-union.
To level of top management by now the knowledge of the fact has been only diffused that an agile enterprise and snella, which has less possible than fixed structure and purchases to the outside the services “generate them” are the model winning in the markets put into effect them and that delegating all the functions members of the women’s army auxiliary corps to suppliers only specialize to you become possible to concentrate itself on the activities for which possesses a effective competence and a competitive advantage.
To testimony of this circumstance a recent search of the Benchmarking can be brought back Club of Business International , second which in 93% of the cases is the top management to define the political of outsourcing also when this type of decision not cares strategic aspects.
A lot of I shave happens that she is a leader of function to assume such responsibility: resorting to the outsourcing in fact, these would run the risk to find themselves with minor being able to the inside of the company.
Viceversa the top manager inclines more than in passed for the resource to the outsourcing, in how much they think that that can carry to one cost reduction (in particular of those fixed) and to one greater flexibilities of the enterprise.
The situation of “ungluing”, often found between top manager and the manager of function or department, ago yes that the suppliers of services today stretch to address more and more to first rather than to the second ones.
The practical experience extension moreover as often the function responsibles stretch to hinder the correct development of the relationship customer-provider, species in the phase experiences them tending to affinare the collaboration between provider and inner staff of the company-customer, which it must necessarily collaborate to the accomplishment of the function to delegate.
In truth the currently offered solutions from the market do not involve the total necessarily loss of the control: in the first place because in the shapes so to speak “base” of outsourcing, the control on the delegated activities can remain to the customer of the vendor; in the second place because to terziarizzare an activity it at all does not mean to acquire a service or a product to scato it sluice: there are, in fact, very precise agreements that tie the enterprises and the outsourcer; finally because the obtainable advantages are wide rewarding. Once that the idea of esternalizzare the greater part of the business functions has been accepted, the difficulty becomes, like always, the execution.
In the companies always strong resistances in the moment are found in which the total dimension of the own activities must be diminished; they are restie to deprive itself of the direct management of some services, when they cannot contextually acquire of the management of others.
The spread of the outsourcing comes therefore hindered from the worry common to many responsible to lose the control of a part of the business system. It does not have in fact to forget that the outsourcing it not only regards exclusively activity not directly tied to the business mission, but is also destined to fail in the attainment of the own ones objects to you, where it comes adopted like solution finalized exclusively to the business cost reduction and therefore when its implementation is not directly aimed to one greater focalization of the enterprise towards just Core-business.
In other words and as they demonstrate the successes and the failures you achieve yourself in the various implementazioni of the outsourcing, it it is destined to produce only succeeded if very inserted in a business strategic plan, of which it constitutes fundamental part sure, but at the same time subordinated to the attainment of objects you of increase at least determine the proportions them or of increase of productivity in the own activities of the company.
The solution of the cited difficulties must consist, in the first place, in putting in motion a mechanism of almost simultaneous put (operation employee exclusively from the abilities to the top management inner) and, in the second place, in the ability to introduce the outsourcing in way it graduates them, therefore not to increase the difficulties that unavoidablly involves the impact of this decision to the inside of the company (this type of operation depends instead on the flexibility and professionality of the provider).
In order to conclude it goes sure said that Italy is introduced like the ” cenerentola ” of the terziarizzazione, if confronted with the rest of the main European countries. The reasons of that reside in the great importance that have the mean small manifacturing enterprises to the inside of the Italian market and in the strong skepticism of their entrepreneurs towards one it upgrades them loss of control of the own activity.
Although all these difficulties, for the next years the movement towards a more important role of the outsourcing are irreversible: the great enterprises will try to put off center all the activities that can be produced to the outside in more competitive way, concentrating itself instead on those in which there are very obvious and not riproducibili distintive competences elsewhere.
It is obvious that in the course of this process the great enterprise ” will grow slim “, in the sense that will have little dependent in organic, while the tasks of the direction will more and more assume different functions of direction from those traditional ones; but at all it is not said that its total force, in terms of network that it ” commands “, is destined to diminish.
Today the business of the enterprise it has new borders; outsourcing, terziarizzazione, specialization and internationalization are order words that must seriously be taken in consideration from all the companies, if the efficiency total of the productive system is wanted to be increased.


The evolutions in action are to the inside of the enterprises, it is on the markets are fruit of a distance already in action for a long time and finiranno with the being only one phase of transition.
In order to comprise the tendencies odierne it must comprise the evolutions passages.
The attention analytics and of argument will have naturally to be centered on the today and the possible lines of tendency, however, also in making this is indispensable to have some elements of ” historical background “, in order to operate comparisons and to gain tendencies. Our analysis begins in years ‘ 50 in which comes introduced in the supermarkets Americans a method of riapprovigionamento of the goodses completely new: from the products it debits you to the case comes decided the order of the products that will replace them.
In this way, they are the effective sales that ” commission ” supplyings directly.
Taiichi Ohno , engineer to the Toyota , leaving from the observation of the management of the stocks realized in the aforesaid supermarkets Americans developed in Nippon the Kan-Ban.
The literal translation in Italian is ” cartellino “, in fact the laborers do not make other that to compile a cartellino in which comes brought back the amount and the type of pieces it captures to you.
The replacements, therefore, come reorder to you to the units to mount or the external suppliers after the collection of cartellini, the that is after that if of manifest real requirement.
Previously instead every thing it came rigidly programmed from the bureaucracy, that it defined the supplyes centrally, that is the “stocks” of pieces of every type to store.
All this but involved the necessity to stop high amount of goodses in warehouse in order to make forehead to eventual unexpected increases of the ordered ones to you, to defects or variations of the question of the products. Diseconomie of the order of the 80 for hundreds regarding the saving of supplyes realized with the method were created therefore of ” cartellino “.
In years ‘ 60 in Toyota they take to body first applications JIT.
The same Taiichi Ohno, than on the base of the Kanban develops a new method of production centralized on the elimination of wastes and the dead times.
In practical the Kanban production of type JIT ends with representing used means in order to make circular the information in one. The JIT represents the birth of a business philosophy that concurs to control:

  1. Entity of the supplyes:
    the sovradimensionamento is pure waste of raw materials and energies (in order to realize them) and of spaces (for storing)
  2. Conformity of the quality of the products and members:
    the refuse represents one waste of raw materials time machine, labor, energy for the transformation.

To the end of 60 years ‘ such new method of production begins to being adopted in USA where it comes coined term JIT (just in Time) with these motivations:

  • To produce the finished products hardly in time in order to deliver them.
  • To produce the semifinished ones hardly in time in order to use them.
  • To acquire the materials to the outside hardly in time in order to transform them.

Such period that is begun to not only mean the warehouse like mere warehouse; the management of the warehouse begins to being conceived in various way beginning to take conscience of the costs that it generates and of the strategic importance that it covers in the corporate structure.
In period 70-73 it is assisted to drammati increments to us of the price of the raw materials (primes from the so-called oil shock) with consequent most serious repercussions on one industry to you employee ” in toto ” from the imports, which that Japanese.
The management Japanese it understands then that in order to survive to the international competition, more efficient management of the resources must put into effect one based on the fight to wastes and turns to the continuous improvement. That door to one capillary spread of the JIT and TQC 25 , with relative consequences:

  • ability to produce volumes elevates to you of the intentional quality to prices absolutely competiti to you;
  • nearly ossessiva search to reduce lessened the supplyes in warehouse heading to the obbiettivo “supplyes zero”.

In such context it is of obligation a optimization of the management of the warehouse, as an example assists therefore to the introduction of new technologies for the movimentazione of the goods in entrance and escape (raw materials, semifinished, or finished product that it is) independently from the characteristics of the supply chain.
Regarding Japan, in the West instead the JIT it has found it hard to assert itself, above all because it is not simply ” pure organizational-managerial technique “, but one true and own culture of enterprise based for how much possible one:

  • on the decisional decentralization with delegations also to the level of single operator (than chip ax of good degree and it is conscious of its role);
  • on the necessity to predispose entire business system in one logical JIT;
  • on relatively simple a productive model.

That is in antite flood to the centralistica vision and deresponsabilizzante of the western business culture for which the barycentre is represented does not give the individual, but from the system (often much complex).
To introduce the JIT necessarily demands therefore a wide involvement of the maestranze involving the acceptance of principles generates them that they must come translate in not generalizzabili and typical organizational facts of every productive truth.
A such approach involves some not negligible peculiarities:

  • The organizational improvement is fruit of the small contributions of many and not of the great and expensive innovations studied from the little.
  • The involvement on the problems of the company not only must be extended to all the hierarchical levels (and to the manager).
  • The introduction of the innovation must change from the western outline prettamente, that it previews short times of idea and long and uncertain times much for the realization, to the Japanese outline that has long times medium for the ideazione (in how much is involved the many subjects to the change) and relatively short times, but almost sure, for the realization. In absence of this new mentality the company will continue to demonstrate one low propensione, if not just a substantial inability, to enter in fundamental logic of the “continuous innovation” and indeed often will be capacity to refuse it for the long times of performance generates you from the passive resistances of subjects been involved and not available for lack of an adapted preliminary phase of acculturamento to the problem. Causes of such reasons that the American JIT and that Japanese differ for presupposed of bottom absolutely various.

In fact:
The JIT USA has one merely nature origin financial institution.
The Japanese JIT is one true and own revolution of the concept of management of the production turns also to obtain fallen back positive on the depositor o f the business economy.
In the years the 70 enterprises begin to entrust to external suppliers some productions that before came carried out in own house.
That one that we can define the “controlled restructure”, with productive decentralization happens and first elements of “terziarizzazione”. In this phase they begin the processes of technological-organizational restructure of the great enterprise. The number of the medium-small enterprises increases remarkablly and north-Italians begin themselves to catch a glimpse the caratteristi features of the industrial districts. He arrives himself therefore to Years 80: years of the restructure and terziarizzazione.
It is assisted to the adoption of the Just in Time for the assembly lines.
Moreover the processes begin in years 70 find their full development to you: the ” terziarizzazione ” is asserted is in its meant “macro” (prevalence of the occupation in the terziario), is in that one “micro”, of “terziarizzazione of activity” from part of the great enterprises (not only industrial).
In years ‘ 90 it begins a progressive process of integration of the actors of the supply chain in which the enterprise tries to delegate the management of the supplyes to thirds party to the aim to diminish the costs and to be able to concentrate itself with greater freedom on just Core business.
Such process we can therefore synthetize it:
from the beginnings of years ‘ 90, the suppliers construct the own plants in the immediate vicinities of the customer;
from 1995 to the suppliers they come assigns you of the spaces to the inside of the plants and their production meets directly in the systems automati us of assembly;
In 2000 to the suppliers it comes demanded of being in a position to assuming the role of active partner in the definition and development of the business strategies and to contribute to the attainment of objects to you economic.

Note 25: Total Quality Control.


The outsourcing ” procedural “, it has like primary objective the flexible of the operating costs of the supplies.
From they give to you in possession of Unitec, turns out that one normal procedure of supplying not less demands than cinquanta/sessanta concatenate operations, that they can succeed in to be involved until to a ten of business agencies of several levels, from the direction to the productive units, for a number of persons who medium go around themselves between the ten and twenty units.
The costs that weigh on structured procedures therefore can easy be imaginable especially if it is considered that they are independent from the type of necessary supply.
In short they come it adopts expensive procedures to you therefore – in terms of business resources – is for assets that contribute in directed way to the produced added value from the enterprise, is for assets that, seppur indispensable, are marginal regarding Core business – tasks as an example, to a supply of neon or light bulbs -: in this case we speak about ” non-production goods “.
Of fundamental importance in order to introduce the outsourcing procedural of supplyings, it turns out the analysis of the process of supplying of the enterprise customer, considered until entering in the details of the flows of the microactivities that compose it.
The every outline of single procedure, and the appraisal of the been involved resources, renders endured the idea of how much expensive one is to provision. Unitec, offers just the service in order to analyze the supply processes, and to redesign the flows of the connected activities.
In the ousourcing procedural, the control of the operations remains to the company customer.
We can assert that draft of an application of the outsourcing of base, characterized, exactly, from the exsternalizer of a not strategic activity, whose control remains inner to the enterprise.
The effect of greater added value, like saying, derives in great part from the flexible of the costs: the performances of Unitec are sources of costs for the enterprise when they are demanded and for more, are only easy monitorabili in every moment.
To transfer the management of the supplies to Unitec, than of such activity has made the own specialization, means to resort to external resources in order to elevate the performances of those inner ones, whose turned out final, it is that one to improve the efficiency of the enterprise through the discouragement of wastes and the best one I use of resources 26 .

Note 26: Argument drawn from www.unitec it


Leaving from the ascertainment that the number of the procedures of a supplying process increases in way proporziona they to the number of orders that they become necessary, and from the fact that the management of the size of information generated they need much time and they engage several resources, Unitec propose themselves like outsourcer external, in a position to rationalizing and managing the processes legacies to the supplies, through the outsourcing administrative, that she corresponds to the extended type of outsourcing more.
The introduction of the instrument of the outsourcing administrative, is aimed specifically to reduce also the inner procedures of administration and control.
Certain that these last ones, in fact, absorb precious resources and means that strongly are finalized for being employed in others amble to you more remunerati you: the recovery of efficiency of these business areas passes through their simplification.
Very important to emphasize like, especially through the outsorucing administrative, the enterprises can obtain from provider the unit prices many competitive, because, for this last one, it becomes possible to operate coordinating with of the orders of all its customers towards the suppliers, which, in virtue of the great size of purchases, grant prices lower to you.
However, already it has been looked at like one of the reasons of greater obstacle to the extended implementation of a outsourcing more, is the fear to lose the control of the situation as far as the esternalizzate activities; in the same way it had been said that this difficulty went old, analyzing the economic advantages deriving, considering the possibility of indirect control of the management of the activities in outsourcing that it happens through the definition of the roles and ambles you to it of competence, and above all, the guarantee that, through the modularity of the outsourcing, exists always the possibility to extend some or eventually ridurne the range.
Unitec, for the outsourcing administrative, but also for the outsourcing procedural, has developed one its easy introducibile modular application in the existing corporate structures, shaped on the business requirements, that the attainment concurs of immediately turns out to you found, and for every module applied.
The modules predisposed from Unitec are three, and conceived for being it applies to you in sequenziale order.
With the application of the first module the management of the simple escapes of the demands for supplying is moved to Unitec without that the property of the goodses comes transferred; with according to module, to the service of escape of the demands for supplying, relative one to the management of the logistics and the administrative activities joins that, that it presupposes the transfer of the property of the goodses; the third applicativo module, extends the outsourcing to the management of the warehouse and the data bank you of articles.
The activities transferable from are endured and it turns out to you are endured quantifiable.
The possible extensions of the modules can regard some services, like the reporting, that it allows, beyond to a precise consultation of turn out to you record to you, the analysis of the inner and external interferences and the suggestion of relative the possible solutions studied for ridurle; moreover they are possible services of international search of suppliers alternated to you, of modernization on the lists of the prices.
Unitec is made available to the shipment of part of the just personal near the enterprise customer, for one aimed management more of the operations.
As it will be said better later on, Unitec is proposed also like inner supplier of software applied to you, created on measure of the found requirements.
Through the complete performance of the outsourcing administrative the inner activities of the administration and the control are reduced radically: the customer must only interfacciarsi with Unitec communicating the amount and the type of goods wished with to the term of delivery and receiving the goods demanded with an only invoice and an only bubble of accompanyment through an only periodic delivery (every day, weekly magazine, salary to second of requirements 27 ).

Note 27: Argument drawn from www.unitec it


The Unitec has developed just business dedicating particular attention to the aspect of a modular introduction of the outsourcing, that it allows an approach graduates them and an immediate economic return to every step carried out in the direction of a outsourcing complete.
The modular introduction I found on a series of proposals and applicative possibility, based on an adaptable model to the dimensions and the business necessities and above all oriented to render the less traumatic possible introduction of the outsourcing in the corporate structure for means of intermediate formulas of outsourcing ” partial “.
An aspect of fundamental relief on purpose of the modular introduction of the outsourcing regards the necessity to constitute a team of job or task force, composed from representatives of the enterprise customer and representatives of the provider.
Such team will come presided from a coordinator who can be indicated with the name outsourcer.
The team in issue, beyond to having the task of monitorare constantly the impact on the corporate structure of the modular introduction of the outsourcing in its several makes itself, would have to supply one guarantee of reversibility of the undertaken road; it in other words would have to anytime reassure the customer on the effective possibility of interruption of the established relationship and of return to one independent management of supplyings, rendering therefore less difficult the decision than to resort to an external partner.
An other aspect of fundamental importance in the within of the modular introduction is constituted from the necessity of one detailed analysis of the supplying process of the customer. Only a such preventive analysis will be able to guarantee an accurate selection of the sottoprocessi or modules which to begin the delegation activity and will be able, moreover, to concur to avoid risks of incongruenze or contrasts of competence in the several ones it is made of introduction.
It goes added as the analysis of the procedures and their appraisal constitutes an occasion in order to evidence the entity of the business resources absorbed from the supplying activities and can, therefore, to confer, where necessary, greater authority to the decision to delegate.
The modular introduction of the outsourcing is integrating part of the service offered from the Unitec and consists essentially in the possibility of its introduction in a configurabile way on the base of the activities that is thought opportune to delegate in is made successive.
To increasing of the dimensions of enterprise they increase more in way that proporziona they the connected advantages to solutions of outsourcing. To the contempo the complexity in the transfer to the outside grows however makes and the number of factors to hold in consideration managerial.
The introduction of a new concept which the outsourcing of supplyings, also being able to bring remarkable advantages to the total efficiency of the business management, it can completely fail the attainment of the own ones objects to you in case comes underrated the difficulties connected to its introduction or it is proceeded to this last one in excessive traumatic way and it does not graduate them.
Also holding account of the connected particularitities unavoidablly to ciascuna different situation and every customer, the Unitec has formulated a procedure of introduction graduates them of just the service, than deep on predefined steps and that it involves quantifiable advantages to the attainment of everyone of they. The main characteristics of this modular procedure are following:

  • it turns out to you immediate in terms of “flexible of the costs”;
  • partial adaptability and expand of every step;
  • reply of the method for various productive systems pertaining to the same customer;
  • reversibility of makes capacities of term;
  • limitation of the risk of insourcing.

To be predisposed therefore a ladder composed standard from three main modules, that they must be ollowed in temporal order in such way to render the activities immediately transferable.
It goes remembered, moreover, than everyone of these modules it can be widened adding single activities to you, waves to concur a better adaptation with present the business processes “of departure” near the customer.
In conclusion, the introduction and the application of the outsourcing administrative and supplyings have allowed the management definitively to resolve the decisional paradoxes that we have cited to the beginning and to obtain flexible actual costs, recovering also the precious resource time, fundamental member in order to dedicate itself more and more effectively to the strategic and primary activities of the company.
With the recovery of the spaces of time in all the areas of the plant, immediately are increased the efficiency degree inner, allowing one better visibility of the resources and beginning one positive spiral of synergies.
The knowledge of the importance of this result has made to comprise that if all the collaborators are he concentrates on Core business the company to you can perform miracles28.

Note 28: Argument drawn from www.unitec it


Between the delegable functions or areas in outsourcing they re-enter: the systems informed to you, the legal office, the human resources, the formation and advising, the internal audit, but above all the logistics and the warehouse.
The outsourcing of warehouse and the logistics, areas that play an essential role to the inside of the new economy, convene essentially for two reasons:

  1. The transformation of the costs from fixed to variable;
  2. The contemporary reduction of the supplyes and the increase of the availability of goodses; in particular in the within of the industrial districts or the rows when the goodses can be considered similar or sostituibili.

The analysis of the presupposed ones for the resource to the outsourcing of supplyings must hold in consideration some fundamental aspects, and that is:

  1. the reduction of the number of the suppliers;
  2. the tendency to replace the supplyes of warehouse with preciser information on the future productive necessities;
  3. the distinction between materials for which it convene to resort material and political local sourcing instead for which the resource to the global sourcing, that is the search of the supplier on the world-wide markets, seems preferibile.

In the resource to the exsternalization of the inner functions it is also necessary that the company the following currencies carefully factors that contribute to delineate the optimal characteristics of the provider to select:

  1. the ability to supply a qualitatively acceptable service;
  2. the price;
  3. the references and the reputation;
  4. the flexibility under the aspect of the contractual conditions;
  5. the amplitude of the fan of the services offers;
  6. the adaptability to the business culture of the customer, eventual previous collaborations and the location.

In terms of strategic analysis, the more favorable element, finalized to obtain a positive result, resides in the fact that the organizations see the outsourcing of warehouse, and the outsourcing in a generalized manner, like one instrument of organizational change.
Sure, the more important between the reasons of tactical character that they induce to resort to the outsourcing of warehouse is tied to the necessity to reduce or to hold under control the increase of the business fixed costs or, more in a generalized manner, of the costs operated to you.
The outsourcing of warehouse and the logistics revolts to outsourcing of single business functions or parts of they re-enter in the services.
Adding goes, finally, an ulterior “pure” distinction between outsourcing to supplying thirds party and other shapes, so to speak, spurie or modality alternatives, which outsourcing in joint-lucks with thirds party or scorporo of inner activities and the creation of controlled companies.


The already present enterprises on the market are threatened, beyond that from the traditional competition, new entering, it facilitates to you from accessibility of the markets, from reperibili products and substitutive services on a become market wider, the increased one to be able contractual of the purchasers, that they decide of a greater possibility of choice, and the suppliers who enjoy markets of outlet theoretically without limits in order to reduce the dependency from the traditional customers.
Of it they achieve new challenges for the enterprises, forced to improve the ability to compete through the strengthening of the own economic and operating structure, the price cutting (and consequently also of the purchase budgets), the quality and functionality of the products.
The fixed cost reduction involves, on one side, the control of the total dimension of the companies, eliminating those structures (human resources and assets orchestrate them) that they are not directly in relation with Core business or the maintenance of the know how, and, from the other, the acquisition from the outside of the goods and services previously produced to the inside.
The organization model that derives some is that one of an organization snella of the goods and services previously produced to the inside and in which, of fact, the processes of business of the company come extended to the outside, rendered accessible from part of thirds party, and conditions in turns out to you to you from the performances of the suppliers.


o the day today particular attention is concentrated to the centers of analysis better known like centers than cost. Until some time it makes in the industrial accountings, the costs directly were attributed to the products without to filter them to the imputation centers in which they had had origin. I use of the centers, by now of great spread and use is particularly useful for the following reasons:

  1. Corrected imputation of the costs, especially for those indirect ones, to the single products; with the centers it is that is avoided to charge of the costs to products for which in truth they have not been supported;
  2. Greater control and responsibility of the various business areas;
  3. Availabilities of give to you in the decisional processes on the single operating units.

In practical the construction of the cost of a product it happens based on the appraisal of two different tipologie of cost: the direct costs and the indirect costs.
The direct costs are easy attributable to a product or one production store clerk, like as an example: the costs supported for the purchase or the extraction of the raw materials, for the working to the aim to obtain a finished product. The indirect costs are, for the greater part, derive to you from representation and commercialization, administration costs. Through the procedure of the cost centers it will be possible to define of the models by means of which the indirect costs come decomposed and you are shared on several the products.
The decomposition of the cost happens through the method of the division proporziona them that it is based on the center concept.
Poichè a indirect cost cannot be attributed to the product that has supported it, then is attributed to its center of belongings.
The center constitutes a recognizable independent entity univoca and to the inside of the corporate structure (a company is composed therefore in more centers).
Every single product receives a quota cost reported to a center in proportion to the use that it has made of the center. The usury of the center can be based on a any criterion of reference:

  • it can be the number of worked hours;
  • the number of produced amounts;
  • the employed time machine;
  • the meters you squared of the premises;

The subdivision of the company in centers demands however that these have requirement of:

  • to) Uniformità as far as the production unit;
  • b) Homogeneity of the type of equipment of productive factors (blots of it and men) and therefore of the relative costs you to the aim to avoid to charge to the products of the mediated costs that not rispecchiano the truth. Also as far as the engagement man the parameters, in the work- in-process are diametrically opposite for which subdivision of centers becomes necessary to have one; quite where it blots some to them they were of various nature and therefore of cost the une from the others the creation of a center for ciascuna can be rendered necessary of they.
  • c) Significance for which it is worth the pain to engage administrative resources that are not suffragate from a effective return in terms of control and cost.
  • d) Responsibility: it is necessary that for everyone of these centers there is who then answers some.


Figure n. 3.2 – Example of A.B.C.

To the aim to calculate the “true cost” attributable to a product, a diffused approach is the Activity Based Costing .
This finds a precise the following motivation in consideration: between the product and the consumption of sure resources not there is a direct tie. Therefore it is not the product that generates the costs directly and it cannot be therefore the only object of calculation to which chargeing all the costs directly.
The product, in fact, for being obtained and being sold demands that they come carried out of the activities and they are these last ones that consume resources and generate the costs.
In this within the single activities are definable as that with of actions or elementary tasks that have for objective that one to distribute a service or to indirectly produce output tangible (semifinished or a member of a product) that it concurs, directly or, “to manifacture” the offer that the enterprise proposes its customers.
The degree of detail with which these activities come defined can be much varied one and the choice cannot that to be consequent to the cognitive requirementses you that it is placed to us in the specific case.
The analysis of the management for activity allows to understand better than what organizational units happen to the inside of the functions and the correspondents and to pick the ties between the functions and to manage the company as it arranges. Wanting to define it is made logical that the A.B.C. second characterizes the introduction of a process of determination of the product cost, can be indicated following is made:

  • to) the activities and the consequent one of the accounts slowly are defined, with the indication of the centers of cost for activity (activity cost pool),
  • b) the costs and objective to attributable they are attributed specifically to the activities; draft therefore to determine the resources absorbed from the various activities through of the pointers of employment of the resources (resource driver) as they can be the hours man, the hours machine, the percentages of uses;
  • c) the activities are characterized determining of cost (cost driver) relative to all and quantification is proceeded to one they,
  • d) the cost of the single activities for unit of determining is estimated of cost (cost driver), dividend the cost total of the activity for the total value attributed to the determining one of cost,
  • e) if it is thought necessary, it can also be proceeded to charge to cascade, through prechosen cost driver, the costs from the activities of support, than reputa possible not to charge itself directly to the product, to the activities of fabrication and sale; this indirect imputation is much debatable one, therefore some students suggests not to allot these costs to the products in how much relating to activity to which often lacks whichever tie causalità directed with the product; they are the activities destined to make to work the corporate structure in its complex;
  • f) totals of the single activities to the products are chargeed the costs, multiplying the cost for unit of cost driver for the value that the cost driver assumes with reference to the product calculation object.


The great innovation introduced from the concept of “reingegnerizzazione of the processes” consists in putting the change of the processes to the center of the analysis and the planning of the new business systems.
Between the essential characteristics of the BPR they number therefore the radical redesign, the objective of the discontinuity of the performances, I use it of the technologies of the information, integrated with the organizational participations.
The main characteristic of the reingegnerizzazione consists in watching to the processes like if it were dealt to rethink them former novo, without being conditions to you from as they are carried out currently, but imagining solutions radical alternatives also, that is much far from the enforced situation.
A typical example of radical redesign is that one to put the activities in parallel rather than in sequence: often the sequence of the activities is not dictated from “a natural” order, but it is tax artificially, according to models of organization of the job traditional.
The reingegnerizzazione is always asked if it is not possible to modify the sequence of the activities, until eliminating it, putting the activities in parallel. In this way total “of attraversamento” of the process can be caught up strong improvements of the time, because the dead times of wait are eliminated.
An other typical example of BPR can consist in the resetting of fragmented activity: often leggermente various activities are assigned to persons or various offices, in the idea that the pushed specialization of the better duties the efficiency of the single activity; in effects, the total efficiency of the process gets worse, for effect of the times of coordination.
The reingegnerizzazione of the processes stretches to recompose fragmented activity, introducing new duties, to which often it comes given the name of houses manager, that is “manager of the case”, because in the new duty all are collections the activities that serve to giving one exhausting answer, timely and personalized to the single “case”, that is to the single demand for the customer.
The introduction of polifunzionali shops can be considered like an application in the public sector.
The polifunzionale sportellista is put in a position to giving complete answers to the customer, avoiding to this last one of having “to pellegrinare” between various offices.
An other opportunity can be the categoryzation differentiation of the flows in the processes: often it happens that they come deals to you (with the same rules in the same way, the same times, the same quality) demanded or various cases, single because it channels to you in the same process.
This effect of “appiattimento” comes exceeded in the reingegnerizzazione that does not stretch – as traditionally it is stretched to make – to separate the processes in presence of various demands, but to differentiate the demands and to deal them like various versions in the within of the same process.
The application of this principle of reingegnerizzazione demands in kind the identification to the income of the type of demand, and the “marking” of the case – that is, the information on the single case follow the long case continuously all the process.
In some units of ready aid it has been introduced “triage”, that is the location to the income of the gravity of the patient, so as to to be able to differentiate the treatment in function of the effective urgency.
Often to the patients they come assigns to you cartellini of various color, than contraddistinguono the patient in all it makes of the process of ready aid (es. wait, medical visit, analysis of laboratory, etc).
A more drastic solution is the activity elimination that does not give value: the reingegnerizzazione places always the problem of because it comes carried out an activity.
As an example if an activity comes carried out in order to correct variances rebelled along the process (es. quality controls), the reingegnerizzazione it stretches to eliminate this type of activity and to concentrate the controls here where the variances (for es. are formed to the income).
In kind, the total participation on the process is realized thanks to technologies that are in a position to rendering shared information that traditionally were to exclusive appanage of one single organizational unit.
This characteristic of organizational trasversalità is a ineliminabile aspect of the BPR, also in ambient public.
As an example, in the fields strongly innovation, like the launch of new products on the market, here where always marketing-development-prototype had been believed to organize the activities in sequence (), has been put in parallel and contemporary, reducing the total times of the process of innovation – also of percentages of 50-70%.
The exchanges informed you from an activity to the other are hour rendered possible through new technologies of sharing of the information (database, nets, etc.) and with technical new of simultaneous planning (concurrent engineering).
Typical technologies used for the reingegnerizzazione of the processes are:

  • systems of base management give to you shared: they allow the only acquisition of give to you (avoiding controls and reconciliations of give to you) and theirs I use simultaneous without risks for integrity of give to you same;
  • systems of integration in net and telecommunication: they allow to put off center the activities without to renounce to the benefits of the centralization of the information;
  • systems of support to the decisions and arrange experts: they allow to recompose in the duties also decisional activities, because the operator has the necessary information and is helped from the system to take the decision contextually, without having to outside pass to the demand to a decisore “line” (typically, the head clerk);
  • systems of identification and “marking” of the flow: it allows, thanks to the introduction of international codes (for es. the code to bars) and of apparatuses of identification (es. with technologies laser, like the optical pens), to use the physical objects like “bearers” of information, and to reach the elimination of activity or the introduction of new services.


A distance of reform of the Italian public administration has been delineated in the last years, whose performance is regulated from several laws promulgate from 1990 today.
This distance of reform is based substantially on the necessity to answer to objects you of improvement of the P.A. in terms of increase of the effectiveness of the public action (effectiveness), of control of the costs of operation of the administrations and reduction of the necessary times to the development of the several activities (efficiency), of increase of the visibility and the possibility of control of the customer on the administrative action (transparency).
These object to you are conjugated with two principles of bottom: the decentralization and the simplification.
With the decentralization a transfer of responsibility is had and tasks operated to you from the administration center them towards the E regions the local agencies: the local administrations become, with the obvious exclusion of some specific fields, the main place of the distribution of the services and of the relationship of the public administration with the outside while the administration centers them it concentrates on the own detailed list mission of address and coordination.
With the simplification they are stretched to reduce implementations, often improper, demands to citizens and enterprises and see again the procedimentali rules eliminating useless passages, verifications and controls often only form them.
In the public sector it is not possible to integrally accept the approach of “complete reinvenzione” of services, activity and structures, that is the total tie absence that possible (favorable in many cases) in the private sector.
The mission and the activities of a public organization are not “optional”.
They are subject to one normative more punctual fort and and are subordinates to the management and the supervision of the political direction and the supervisory bodies.
The question begins them for who is about to a change of just the way to operate is not, like in the private sector, ” like can reinventare my role, my services, my processes for being able to obtain better turns out to you on the market? “but it becomes” which is my mandate, my mission, the strategic direction that I must follow and like I can redesign and improve my processes in order to answer to these expectations? “.
The reingegnerizzazione of the processes in within of Public Administration passes therefore through, not only the currently present analysis of the single situations and truths on the territory, but also through a various approach from what it could be applied to level of enterprise.



UNITEC D (High Tech Industrieprodukte Vertriebs GmbH), is an enterprise to limited liability, with center to Augsburg (Germany), been born to the end of years ‘ 80 on initiative of the Italian entrepreneur Marino Vincenzo , that it had matured important experiences in the within of the field of the great systems of automation for the construction of motors vehicle to world-wide level.
Such working experience, carried it to characterize all a series of operating deficiencies and managerial in the logistics and supplyings in those companies that they began to tighten new relations trade them with enterprises situated in geographically distant markets.
Problematic the showier than such deficiencies, it concerned in fact the fragmentation of the supplies and nearly the impossibility to coordinate supplyings also under a temporal point of view.
UNITEC, realized therefore new services, to high added value, that they turned out of extreme importance for such companies.
The concept of integrated supply was born, through which it allowed to the companies customers to delegate the supplying activities therefore traditionally to obtain the supplies with more effective and efficient modalities regarding the methods uses you.
UNITEC, was placed on behalf therefore like risen of office a purchase-foreign country of such enterprises and where the activity of offered attendance, was justified from the fact that the foretold one, having all a series of resources and acquaintances, facilitated of fact the implementation to low cost of relationships trades them with new suppliers.
The enterprises turned out in fact devoid of specific acquaintances of the new market in which it was gone to operate, beyond that of linguistico type and, therefore, it became indispensable to arrange of all a series of managerial resources useful to implement an integration of the processes operated to you, logistic and trained (tasks to you in this case to the several norms lawyers and customs necessary for the sdoganamento of the products it acquires to you).
The park UNITEC customers, in virtue of the offer of such services and therefore, of the value that the enterprises obtained thanks to the new modalities of outsourcing and integrated supply, with that in a position to managing and organizing all is made of supplying, began from endured to increase, recording a progressive increment of its force job, constituted from professionals of the field, than it was gone around around to annual 40%.
An ulterior acknowledgment of the activity carried out from the UNITEC, was had with the participation to the activity of the DIN, ” Deutsche Institut Für Normung “, intentional from the same organism, which work to world-wide level for the definition of the emergency norms generates them in relation to the construction and maintenance of the systems of production and which UNITEC is exactly active member, exercising to its inside a decisional power, through the formulation of just the ballot, beyond offering technical advising.
For how much it concerns the choice of business geographic localization to the inside of the German area, it is explained from the fact that just in such area, defined from same the Marino one like a primordiale crucible, was to the beginning of years ‘ 80, a high concentration of companies, operating mainly in the automotive field ( Mercedes, BMW, Porsche, Audios, Volkswagen, Grob, KuKa, MAN, Siemens ..), to the inside of which one developed to a production of members and products to high technological content, relatively to which the European enterprises particularly were interested in terms of supply.
For such enterprises, nacque therefore the requirement of having a point of reference which to make confidence for the development of relationships it trades them with foreign enterprises, UNITEC, prepared therefore one driven in net of such services logistic and trained to you innovated to concur with said enterprises to you to delegate, all or in part, the activities necessary to organize all the logistic and administrative flow of the sub-supply relationships.
Such activities in fact, not being of type Core, would have generated of the advanced costs of inner coordination regarding those of market, delegating instead to UNITEC the same activities, the enterprises customers participated actively to a driven in net of exchanges trade them with foreign Countries to contained costs.


Figure n. 4.1 – geographic Localization of UNITEC GmbH (source

Currently, the markets of reference of UNITEC, are not only expanded in European within, thanks also at opening of the Only Market that has favorite is the free circulation of the goodses that a reduction of risks connected to the exchange rates with the introduction of the Euro, but also in international within, where persist still objective difficulties for the enterprises pertaining to the various Countries, held account of the various languages not still totally flavored 29 .


The mission of Unitec GmbH is that one “to transform the fixed costs in variable and ridurli. To supply means for the reingegnerizzazione of the supplying procedures.
To support the business continuous improvement and the Quality Management. To generate from every cost a added value. To render the customers free to dedicate itself totally and calmly to just Core Business “. [ Ciapetti C.L., article published on ].
Such it objects to you come caught up “Reducing the number of suppliers, managing them and training them. Integrating the supplies so that “a” delivery replaces hundred of arrivals and relati controls and operations to you of warehouse. And therefore invoicing “a” time to the month instead of migliaia of times.
Unificando currencies, the terms and the number of the payments to the suppliers.
All these thanks to persons prepared and the computer science technology, interconnecting in fact our customers with junior clerks to you Internet (NetSourcing) and available 24 hours on the 24 in all languages and from whichever part of the world”. [ R. Morelli, article published on ].
That reassumes the concepts compiutamente already illustrates you that they are to the base of the outsourcing of supplyings and the e-procurement.
The development of the concept of outsourcing for Unitec, has clearly risentito of the different tipologie of coming from demands from the customers, whose diversities go above all searched in the contexts and the terms of competition with which they must be confronted.
Just in order to try to answer in the preciser and directed way how much possible one to the demanded specificities, Unitec has developed the idea to personalize the own services, in the first place distinguishing the outsourcing in “procedural” and “administrative”, and then structuring them through NetSourcing, the computer science instrument of Unitec 30 .

Note 29: Marino Vincenzo, from
Note 30: Marino Vincenzo source (


Of particular business importance, it is the service of Virtual Warehouse offered from UNITEC relatively to the management of the supplyes.
UNITEC in fact, studies and organizes the logistic service of delivery of the goodses second finishes and modality preventively agrees with the company customer to you.
The service, allows the aforesaid ones to best manage just the production process and, therefore, to satisfy in more effective way the demands carried out from the own customers.
In such a way, every enterprise customer, succeeds in its turn in fidelizzare the own customers, confidando moreover in organized supplies, will be able to also reduce the amount of the supplyes of assets (strategic or less) usually accumulates to you in just the warehouse.
As we have already analyzed, problematic main, the relative one to the management of the supplyes, it concerns in fact two essential points:

  • when to order
  • how much to order

Also admitting the usefullness, if not quite the necessity, of the existence of a minimal supply of emergency, the company must be in a position to being able to establish with a sure margin of approximation, the exact moment of arrival of the matters for being ready to distribute immediately the service to just the customer, such to turn out more works them and timely regarding the competition. The answer to “how much to order”, is noticeable from the so-called “point of reorders” illustrated in the first one understood it. Just for how much it concerns instead the amount to order, the company has the possibility to use I affixed software to you that allows them to characterize, based on the consumption of the same matters, the exact one to pile of supplyes that will have to reconstitute in order to catch up the that “minimal” level of supplyes preventively established. Since the existence of the supplyes in warehouse represents a business cost, the management must necessarily realize a oculata management of the same ones.
Presupposed of their existence it is the temporal phase-difference that elapses between the flow of the deliveries and that one of theirs I use (is physicist who informative).
Therefore the enterprises succeed to obtain one they reduction, solo in the moment in which they arrive to one sharing of information, concurred from the new technologies, between supplier and same company, that is through a provider of services to which delegating the task to assure such informative exchange.
Leaving from the ABC analysis of the products stopped in warehouse, it is in fact possible to obtain a typical classification of the assets to manage in supply for the production, in base therefore to the importance that assume in business within.
The products are characterized then of wrap “To” which strategic materials that they absorb 80% of the economic volume of expense distributed on 20% of the suppliers, the assets of wrap “B” like “intermediate” assets that absorb 15% of the expense on 30% of the suppliers, and the assets of wrap “distributed C” that represent remaining 5% of the expense on 50% of the suppliers.
The product of wraps “To”, being exactly strategic, they usually come managed from the companies with a greater cure regarding those of you wrap “B” and “C” which weigh little on the formation of the cost and the turnover (apply principle 80/20 of Pareto).
These last ones, can easy therefore be managed through the delegation in outsourcing in way shared between more companies, therefore to obtain economies regarding the cost of purchase, transport, order and control.
Well, the enterprises customers, catch up a optimization of the management of the supplyes through a continuous shared logistic and informative flow between same and the suppliers.
The sharing of the resources and the information, is sure obtainable for how much concerns the products of wraps “B” and “C”, representing these strategic materials, even if null preclude similar plans does not apply to you also to those of wraps “To”.
The provider of service and therefore UNITEC, beyond integrating the relative orders of supply you to such assets, succeeding to obtain more regular supplies and to more favorable conditions of price, it offers to the participants as well as the possibility to reduce progressively the own supplyes increasing some but the availability (lemma of the Virtual Warehouse), how much the attainment of positive effects you on the indices of spin of the stoccata goods.
UNITEC in fact, through I use it of the new technologies, is in continuous logon with the own suppliers (its partner) and the companies customers, therefore to optimize the times and the necessary procedures for the management of supplying based on the habits and necessity of consumption of the same companies customers, their territorial localization and, not last, regarding the practicability of the geographic area of reference.
To such purpose, UNITEC, has realized a new one e-tool, the ” NETSOURCING “, which Internet-based instrument that allows a effective connection between just the office acquires, with that one of the customers and suppliers.
In such a way, every enterprise customer, has the possibility to formulate one demanded of supply in real Time, on the base of it catalogues of present products in the give-base of UNITEC, that is formulating demanded of products that then are reperiti from the same UNITEC, associating also demanded relative to various supplies.
Such system, allows to the company a continuous activity of tracking, therefore to obtain, in every moment, relative information to the state of advance of the supply, the terms of delivery, shipment and invoicing. Like famous, the delivery of the goods, follows a iter procedural that sees its realization, to coincide with the moment in which the supplier it has the quantitative entire availability of of goods ordered, that is of the last tipologia of demanded goods.
In practical, until when all the quantitative one of goods is not available, the delivery of the same one does not happen, in how much the supplier avoids sopportare more times the transport costs. Such delay, ripercuote negatively on the business production.
Well, the company, distinguishing the urgent deliveries from that they can be sent back in the time, agrees with UNITEC the best solutions so that the deliveries are optimized and organized based on the effective necessities of the moment.
In such a way, the risks are cancelled legacies to the delays of the delivery and, at the same time, one is obtained consequently concentration and one reduction of the necessary times to the management of the warehouse, eliminating the dead times and increased parallel the efficiency of the prelocated structures.


Figure n 4.2 – logistic Organization. (Source UNITEC D GmbH, 2001)

With the solution of the integrated supply and the Virtual Warehouse offers from UNITEC instead, a possible point of equilibrium between the minimal level of the supplyes is studied (calculated based on uses of same in relation to the business productive ability and the time of escape of the orders from part of the suppliers) and the relative number and cost you to supplyings.


The model of Virtual Warehouse 31 has been conceived from the UNITEC like a simple service not to offer to the customers in order to reduce the warehouse costs, but like one new business philosophy.
In a market in which the survival of an enterprise more and more it is tied to the optimization of the own efficiency, it becomes unavoidable to reduce every risen of costs deriving from the production processes, trained to you and financial.
Competitive dynamics more and more pushes the enterprises towards managerial solutions that privilege the sharing of the purchases and supplyings.
Such solutions produce better turn out to you laddove are a greater concentration of enterprises that exercise the same activities.
It is the case as an example of the industrial districts and the districts hospitals worker, than for their characteristics they concur the realization of economies of scale by means of the activity sharing. The new philosophy is based on enunciated a much simple one: the union makes the force (and in such case it pulls down the costs).
The UNITEC supports that these shapes cooperatives will more and more represent the new way to make enterprise.
Seen the huge ones understood them that it demands, to case the attention has not been headed at the warehouse. In the understood one them previous, we have seen as the enterprises can at a distance establish a communication with own the partner, to tighten new relationships above all trades them and of collaboration also with enterprises pertaining to various geographic contexts and these thanks to the ICT.
The flow of the assets between the various places of production but, needs of new instruments actions to reduce the operating barriers that traditionally have represented a limit to the development of the economic activities of the PMI on total scale.
The new conception of the logistics, thanks to the new technologies, has allowed the enterprises to render more fluid the production processes ” space differentiates 32″.
In fact, through a delegation in outsourcing of all those activities that do not re-enter between those comprised in the excellence area, the enterprise can concentrate the resources on the production of goods and services, their quality, the design and therefore on the distintive competences with which creating useful value for the enterprises customers (in practical the enterprise new organization to net of the division of labor succeeds to reorganize the own structure with one).
In the concept of extensive enterprise and, therefore, extended supply chain, the logistics is from agreeing like that with of activity that guides all the movementation of the physical and informative flow of the goodses to the inside of a productive net (as it could be in the case of a productive district).
Date for discounted the importance and the necessity of the supplyes, the companies that take advantage of the opportunities offered from the new technologies, continuously stretches to head towards the objective of the “zero-supplyes” is in order progressively to reduce the quotas understood them immobilized and is in order to render the answer to the crescent more effective variability of the productive cycles (more and more short).
They persist however of the barriers that render the implementazione of solutions in such sense for the lack of endowed staff of specific competences in matter and equipments difficult adapted to support such strategies.
UNITEC, represents therefore a Information based integrator which it offers to the enterprises customers, the possibility to have use of also of services that allow to common supplyings and warehouses you flavored yourself. The ” Virtual Warehouse “, represents one possibility of optimization of the management of the warehouses of the enterprises.
Such solution, has been studied above all for all those enterprises that operate in the industrial districts. The idea to use an only warehouse to service more enterprises, has not been received favorably, meeting with problematic of managerial nature.
Many enterprises in fact, stretch to wanting to conserve the own managerial autonomy (irreplaceable source of versatilità), and therefore not to want to share with the competition, strategic information on the own markets (are they of supplying that of distribution) or still information to high added value of the own productions.
One first initiative in such direction, has been had in the district of marbles of the Valpolicella, where some of the enterprises pertaining to the cluster, have been activated for a logistic consorziamento, through activity of coordination of the infrastructural investments for the realization of a common logistic platform, with the attempt to rationalize the movement and the stock of the goodses, in income and expenditure, for groups of enterprises that, beyond to being localized in a same territorial within, share assets pertaining to the same merceologico field.
Other example a lot important, is that relative to the district of Montebelluna (district of the scarpone from ski), where the enterprises begin to develop and to undertake investment strategies in elements communicated to you you flavored yourself.
To be created, to such aim, a managerial platform that will concur, in the time, to implement solutions of plannings shared and rapid prototyping for the scarpone from ski.
The new technologies but, beyond with the possibility of the sharing of the information, concur also, through the construction of virtual platforms, the sharing of the business supplyes in a Virtual Warehouse, where a specialized, neutral operator regarding all the district companies and therefore that he can assure a sure guarantee of transparency for all the participants to the plan, UNITEC exactly, manages all the information on the state of the single business warehouses and of the activities of I reorder relative to the acquired ones you flavored yourself.
The condition for the happened one of such initiative but, is subordinated is to the adoption of a logistic standard and comunicativo in which such virtual platform is realized, than one geographic vicinity of the same enterprises for one better organization of the deliveries of the goodses.
The area of the sport footwear in fact, is introduced inserted in a territory from the contained dimensions, homogenous and very defined from a point of view they works. The district, extends on 15 common ones, with one surface total of 320 Kmq. The enterprises pertaining to the district, are approximately 400, between industrial and handicraft companies, characterized from one extraordinary capacitàdi process and product innovation.
The logistics but, continues to represent a crucial node for the district. The rapidity of the circulation of the information and the goodses, is therefore one of the aspects on which all the enterprises would have to reason and to invest.
The own advantages of the Virtual Warehouse can be explain to you with the lemma coined from the same Administrator of the UNITEC, Marino Vincenzo. The supplyes of every enterprise that participates to the plan, diminish immediately but, paradoxicalally, of it it increases availability 33 .
The transformation of “a physical” object in “virtual”, is sure an impossible activity, but the developments of the communications and the computer science net, are in effects instruments that allow this ” metamorphosis “.
The Virtual Warehouse is in fact an expression of the use that can be made of these possible transformations.
It is the physical state of the objects, than their virtual state, they come considers you to the inside of the M.V. for which, we can define it, like a physicist-computer science hybrid.
The sharing of the information, possible yield from the net technologies, allows in fact to rationalize and to esternalizzare the management of the supplyes, physically present in the business warehouses.
Through the M.V. in fact, the supplyes are represented from the sum of the members, rendered available from the enterprises participants to the same M.V. and that they operate in one same territory.
The model therefore, finds its particular point of reference in the industrial districts, where the possibility to share raw materials, semifinished and replacement parts, turns out maximum.
The warehouses of the enterprises that operate in the districts in fact, introduce most times, of the redundancies of supplyes, beyond to all a series of problematic tied to the operating and logistic confusion that creates between goodses in income and expenditure.
Phenomena these that regard all indifferently the enterprises which see forced sopportare the consequent operating costs, existing in such economic truths of ” duplicate to you structural “.
Like already analyzed, a sharing plan, concurs therefore with said enterprises, to eliminate it wastes and to obtain new revives economic.
With the M.V., the UNITEC offers to all the enterprises of the district, a reduction of the supplyes to stoccare, without but the renunciation to a ready availability of the same ones in case of necessity and, this, thanks to a system software that always allows to have under control and in real time, all the necessary information for the co-ordinate and total management in I use of the same supplyes.
In case of I use of supplyes from part of a company, beyond the limits of the own availability, UNITEC, through the computer science system, it proceeds immediately to the withdrawal of money of the goods from the warehouse of a near company, and to I reorder of the same goods the supplier. The entire district, works therefore like an only factory and where the M.V. is constituted physically from with of the warehouses of property of the various companies, whose management but, comes entrusted to UNITEC.
The obtainable economies to the inside of the industrial districts, would have therefore a great impact on all the chain of the national value.
The system and the exercise of a Virtual Warehouse are represented from the following illustration:


The companies participants, transmit to the manager of the M.V., the UNITEC, all the information of the contents of the business warehouse that wish to share with the other operating enterprises in the district, so that the manager generates a M.V. that the description of the materials contains, the amounts available and the times of supplying and reorders.
The enterprises can consequently reorganize their supplyes in function exactly of the availability of the M.V. and the own operating necessities.
The participants can therefore demand online the delivery of the materials of which they need and this, 24 hours on 24. The same UNITEC, then supplies to organize the withdrawals of money and the deliveries of the materials in the within of all the district territory and, therefore, the relati to you processes of I reorder from the suppliers.
In the M.V. therefore, the management of the supplyes comes standardized and the recycle obsolescences, therefore to allow an increase of the spin of warehouse and the availability of understood them, the before bound with the existence of one management of traditional type.
We place the case that as an example participates to the M.V. plan three enterprises pertaining to the industrial district of the marble of Massa Carrara.
The three companies, reduce ognuna the own marble supplyes and graniti (the companies possess all the same tipologia of supplyes) in the measure of 33%, therefore to hold 66% of just the warehouse and, parallel, to make available it also for the others.


In practical, they come cancels you the costs connected to the existence of a warehouse (the sum of the costs of 33% of every business warehouse, corresponds in fact to the cost total of an entire warehouse) where but the availability of sharing of the goodses given from every company, determines an availability doubled regarding the consistency of the supplyes ante participation to the M.V. plan the saving for the three enterprises, is therefore equivalent to the cost of an entire warehouse paradoxicalally associated to the increment of 100% of the usable supplyes from ognuna of they.
The companies interconnected in such system, also have therefore the guarantee of an availability of matters, that it goes quite beyond that one possessed previously, not being the present supplyes in their warehouse
More enterprises participate to the such implementation of solutions, minors will turn out the quotas matters to store, and, parallel greater they will be the quotas matters available.
In the specific case of the district of the scarpone from ski of Montebelluna, where the enterprises, being in strong competition between they, go to operate singularly with a pluralità of suppliers, they support all a series of costs, not only logistic but also trained to you and organizational, that they can be eliminates to you or, to the limit, remarkablly reduced.
We imagine the district like a condominio formed from ten apartments (enterprises). Every condomino, conserve in the own house, a set of 10 light bulbs of reservoir and type standard, in the case becomes necessary one substitution.
The stock total will be therefore of 100 light bulbs. Supposing an equal average cost to 50 Euro to set of light bulbs, the all in cost of the stock, will be equal to 500 Euro.
It comes decided to reduce the stock characterizes them to 2 light bulbs with possibility for everyone of the owner to address for the surplus, to the neighbor.
It comes then entrusted the assignment of the management of the stock of the light bulbs to a caretaker (UNITEC in the truth), which, thanks to a directory of the owners of relati to you the set of rendered light bulbs available, capture the necessary light bulb from the set of condomino the more neighbor, organizing some the transport and the delivery, in order then to cure of re-integration.
The every saving of single condomino is in this case of 80%, while the availability of supplyes is doubled (the condomino has 20 light bulbs against the 10 ante M.V.).
The enterprises of the district, can therefore pass from a management of conventional type, to which the existence of remarkable waste of resources is associated, to that it previews the participation and I use it of a Virtual Warehouse, through interconnections and logistic services distribute to you from the provider.
In the case then they were taken place of the particular variations in the demands for the goodses from part of an enterprise, and the warehouses of the others were not in a position to satisfying such requirement (case limit), UNITEC will carry out new supplyings immediately. The provider it can operate with extreme sollecitudine, in how much the demand for supply from part of the company, reaches in real Time and the state of the availability of the warehouses, is held under control 24 hours on 24.
From the song they, the enterprises, can reduce the own supplyes, without to compromise of the availability and, therefore, the risk of loss of upgrades them orders. The operating costs of the warehouse, as it is famous, grow proportionally to increasing of the availability of the supplyes. Well, with such solution, the costs will stretch to decrease. To participate moreover to a Virtual Warehouse, allows of:

  • to eliminate the overhead managerial;
    to adapt the costs of the warehouse to the business conjunctural course;
  • to take advantage itself of synergies negotiates them and organizational;
  • to have use of of scale reductions in price multiplies to you in function of the great volumes of purchase generates to you;
    to guarantee one better reperibilità of the supplies associated to an elevation of the qualitative standards;
  • to diminish of the structure costs;
  • safeguard of the atmosphere through one reduction of the traffic generated from transports of along distance34.

It is necessary to emphasize but, that the future development of similar solutions, will depend strongly on the will of the district entrepreneur and not to arrive to one effective sharing of resources.
The fundamental obstacle is, like has already seen, represented from the fear to lose that managerial autonomy and operating that they always give it has distinguished the poured ones them of the PMI.
It is necessary therefore that the management, it not only comprises the importance of a business distance based on the competition, but also on the collaboration for the obtaining of the scope and economies of scale in optical of total economy.

Note 31: Vincenzo Marino, general manager Unitec (
Note 32: Corò Giancarlo, from “Industrial districts and technologies of net: to plan the convergence”, Franco Angeli 2000
Note 33: Vincenzo Marino, general manager Unitec (
Note 34: UNITEC D GmbH



n aspect that denotes the SSN is unfortunately the exorbitant costs that it generates and the huge resources financial institutions that absorb.
From years the political leaderships agree, even if with different positions, on the fact that urge participations finalize to you to restructure such field in strong loss.
Currently the lines guide supplied in order to reduce national sanitary expenses are: responsabilizzare of the regions entrusting they it direction and management of the respective USL; to put into effect economies of scale centralizing not only the management, but also the structures hospitals worker.
In the specific one a process of reconversion of the hospitals of smallest dimension is being put into effect, that is those with less than 120 places read that they constitute still nearly 1/3 of the total.
In effects regarding the greater communitarian countries, our structures hospitals worker strongly turn out under dimensions: as soon as 30% of the same ones have a advanced equipment of places read to the 500 units and many hospitals to direct management do not catch up neanche the 100 places read.
In order to catch up economies of scale one previews instead the centralization of the warehouses hospitals worker. In practical tip $R-alla.chiusura of the warehouses of a district hospital worker letting some active one only that it will have to supply to the refueling of all the units of all the hospitals.
The objective is that one to carry out a total organizational rearrangement of the service in the insertion perspective, in the process of supplying and distribution of the druggist productive factors of a ” external subject” to the company which activity series will be remitted one.
Such rearrangement will invest, as well as the aspects operated to you how much those informed to us correlates you to the various activities, and will determine substantial modifications also in the relationships with the “inner customers” who will have unavoidablly to adapt themselves to the change.
To here of the specific appraisals on the various activities that will have to be put in field for the performance of the plan, it is necessary to place the attention on some elements of the same one that of it represent the primary objective; that is those economic appraisals that determine one assumed realization of meant savings to you.
The document ” Rationalization of the functions acquires and logistics Business Plan ” (elaborated from the Accentare and whose they give to you they turn out recepiti from part of the Tuscany Region in the within of the plan of rationalization of the logistics) previews between the other things an operation of centralization/exsternalizzation of the pharmacy warehouses adducing one hypothesis of savings: to regimen of the entire process of centralization/exsternalizzation (year a 2006) reduction of costs of approximately 5.200.000 of euro the year had to the management in outsourcing and previews the estimative contract application and the zero setting of the lyings of property of the sanitary companies.
23 units) e mployee from the SSR remain a operating costs of the personal druggist (, indicated like staff of the companies dedicated to the logistics, the indicated cost of outsourcing equal is to 3.1% of the value journeyed to constant warehouse and considered from 2004 to 2007. Modifications in the consumptions are not previewed; the economies on the costs derive from the discouragement of the costs on the staff and from the zero setting of the supplyes of property of the Companies , from the strong reduction of the other operating costs (rents, users, etc), from the cancellation of the financial burdens for immobilization of the supplyes.
The costs put into effect them of management of the pharmacy warehouses have been estimated, in the same document, par to 4,6 % of the journeyed value (comprised the financial burdens for immobilization of the supplyes). No hypothesis has been made previewing a various organization of the logistics, putting into effect plans of rationalization of the pharmacy warehouses, optimizing the resources puts into effect them and previewing a management equipped with spaces, but above all average, technologies adapt and adapted training to you of the attached staff. Main aspects to carefully estimate (points of critical) in the model assumed in the Business Plan (Accenture) are:

  1. Real costs in the course of the time of the management of outsourcing regarding the costs of the warehouses put into effect them (the percentage even if fixed it is tied to the value of the journeyed material), above all for those beyond the plan previewed (beyond 2006).
  2. The cetralized management in outsourcing could carry verosimilmente to a monopoly that would reduce in the time the competitiveness on the market of possible outsourcer and the demand in the time of costs increases you for the management of the service (is determining the type of stipulated contract).
  3. The esternalizzazione process would carry to “sterilizing” the organizations that currently manage the products dì competence of the Pharmacy, the process assumes many characteristics of event to only sense.
  4. The tempistica of the deliveries and urgencies are aspects of great relief and responsibility; every change must carry to one just calibration of these aspects.
  5. It is not thinkable that all the products are manage in exsternalizzation, above all as far as Hospitals or activity to high specialization. In kind that that is distributed to stock re-enters mostly between 80% of the fermaci that they generate 20% of the costs. The innovative therapies, the technological acquisitions, that they represent in remaining kind the responsible voices of the relative expense to 80%, however would be prescribed with personalized prescriptions, which participation dedicated to patient and eventually monitorations, therefore difficultly gestibili in regimen of exsternalizzation.
  6. All the suppliers are not available to accept this type of contract as an example (drug producers also in exclusive right, but whose supplies contained for are quantitati you of consumption does not elevate to you).
  7. To hold account of the resorption of the professional and operating figures currently dedicated to the warehouses. In an optical which that one introduced the effective discouragement of the costs for the SSR is put into effect alone with the numerical reduction of the staff (lacked turn-over).
  8. To hold account of the possible increase of the supplyes near the user (units).
  9. The drugs have various implications respect to other consumer goodses, the responsibility of the druggist are restricted from norms.
  10. The plan does not point out which level of improvement of the appropriatness on the use of the drug and the garrisons (discouragement of wastes and of the uses it does not base to you on the evidence) must take part the process of rationalization of the druggist product management. They are the participations, above all of cultural type, that they can determine a possible one, control of the consumptions (and therefore of the costs) naturally to parity of performances; such participations essentially consist in promuovere/valutare the appropriatness of the prescription and the application of the therapeutic protocols you flavored yourself. Also in the case of the devices you doctors and the medication materials, the best savings can be achieve themselves through participations orient you to one more careful appraisal – also on the economic plan – of the therapeutic choices, above all in relation to the insertion of new acquisitions 35 .

Note 35: SiNaFO Source


According to the elaborations of the ministry of the Health, in 2002, Italy, the expense for the SSN has been attested around the 79 billions of euro, par to 6.3% of the gross product (Tab. 5,1).
Regarding 1995, therefore it has grown of beyond 63% in nominal terms, that is nearly 31 billions of euro in.cifra absolute (+38% to constant prices).
Expenses of the SSN have absorbed, in 2002, more of 14% of the running expense of the public administrations (approximately 1/4 of the total social expense), against 10.9% of 1995.
In terms per capita, in 2002, the costs of the SSN are turn out you equal to 1.370 euro, against the 840 of 1995.


Table n. the 5.1 – costs of the National Health Service (years 1995-2002) (Source: Elaboration Ageing Society on gives to you to ministry Health and ISTAT)

Even if the incidence of the sanitary expense on the PIL appears in Italy still leggermente inferior to that one of the greater countries industrializes (7-7,5% to you), that that arouses strong worries is, on one side, its support in along term, when the effects connected to the aging of the population and the scientific progress will be unfolded totally.
From the other, the acceleration recorded from the same one in the more recent period, in spite of the measures of control activated to leave from 1999 with the Pact of inner stability.
From 1999 to 2002 for the precision, the costs of the SSN are increase you to little inferior a annual medium rate to 8% to going rates (of 5% in the appraisal to constant prices).
In the last years, the druggist attendance is the expense voice that it has made to record the consisting increment more, being last from the 5.1 billions of euro of 1995 to nearly the 12 billions of 2002 (+97.9% in real terms).
Although it marks increases to you, the druggist expense to cargo of the SSN not discosta in meaningful way from the average of countries OCSE; however, the strong acceleration of the last years by now renders the activation of a series of corrective measures finalized improcrastinabile to rationalize the question of the service.
Together to drugs, they are the purchases of goods and services – the so-called the intermediate consumptions – the expense voice that it has evidenced, to leave from 1995, the consisting increments more.
In 2002, such purchases are turn out to you advanced to the 17 billions of euro, against approximately 9 billions of ‘ 95 (+57.8% to clearly of the inflation).
In the more recent period, however, the expense for intermediate consumptions has recorded a light slowing down, also for effect of the process of centralization of the purchases.
From the consolidated economic account of the health, elaborated from the ISTAT (cfr. Tab.3), a meaningful increase in the course of 2002 of the deficit of the field emerges, than it has been approximated to the 5,3 billions of euro, that is to the higher level of last the seven years.


Table 5.2 – Economic account consolidated of the health (years 1995-2002) (Source: Elaboration Ageing Society on gives ISTAT to you)

Considering such exorbitant figures and the sostenibilità in the time of it does not put into effect them sanitary order does not have to forget that the enormous costs generate to you are in great part finance to you through the fiscal imposition; our sanitary system therefore is prepaid and not free.
It is true that we find ourselves of forehead to a field whose role cannot and does not have to be estimated solo from an economic point of view, but must hold account also and above all of the social importance in enclosed it; but to every case the improvement margins are remarkable: the sanitary programming, the allocation of such resources, the control on the expense flows, the order of the distribution, is all factors that if reviews would prune to bring an improvement in terms of expense but also of service not only offered.
Going to face the argument of the warehouse hospital worker they are brought back of continuation some give to you indicated of expenses hospitals worker to you, than better they will help us to comprise the obtainable savings to national level with the Virtual Warehouse:



In analyzing the logistic structure of the making structures head to the SSN must keep in mind also the service which they are held lend.
The management of the assets, and in particular of drugs, not only goes estimated in the mere economic aspect, but above all in that organizational one and of appropriatness of the performance, finalized to guarantee it adapts to you, and possibly more and more it appropriates to you, levels of druggist attendance to the patient.
The U.O. of Pharmacy it has between several the tasks to it entrusted institutionally, that one to satisfy the medicinal demands for coming from from the stays in hospital, the services and the outpatients departments of the belongings company.
The pharmacy service carries out such task by means of:

  • Supplying of the druggist products and the matters on the base of the requirements represented from the utilizzatori;
  • The movementation and preparation orders;
  • The stoccaggio and conservation of the products;
  • The galeniche and druggist preparations second the norms previewed from the sanitary laws;
  • The preparation and delivery to the units petitioners and external patients (in the cases previewed from the norm in matter of druggist attendance) of the afferent healthy materials to following the various categories which: medicinal; diagnostic, chemical reagents and products; dispositi doctors and other sanitary material to you.

On all these activities come exercised the control and the vigilance from part of the managing staff druggist.
A plan that previews the internal-business centralization of reception and stoccaggio of the materials and the activation of a system of distribution directed to the final utilizzatori (units and services territorial hospitals worker and of Companies USL and hospitals worker), at least presupposes – of fact – the elimination of the single business druggist warehouses or a strong reorganization of the same ones.
To such purpose, but, it is necessary to characterize with clarity how much would have to residuare in ” dismantle ” the warehouses of the pharmacies hospitals worker in order to make forehead the so-called “urgent ” demands, in particular to the emergencies.
Such argument will come more ahead deepened.


Scope and reason of being of the U.O. of Pharmacy in within hospital worker are to assure the development of the druggist functions of base and clinics previewed from the enforced norm, in the light of the new charitable and managerial requirements, distributing performances and services aimed you to a sure use and ration them of drugs and sanitary material remaining in order to satisfy the requirements of health of the citizens, exercising the monitoring and the vigilance on the prescription, developing in particular a job to interdisciplinare with all the business organizational articulations, like part of one total strategy of appropriatness d he sanitary participations.
In such logic, the U.O. pharmacy is engaged to plan and to put in action the own activities through the optimization of the use of the entrusted resources and the formation/training of the staff.
It is of easy understanding that the pharmacy and distribution of drugs assume an increasing role of protagonist in the area of the rationalization of the management and the expense.
The recepimento of the Pharmaceutical Beloveds places therefore the bases for a radical change of the distribution system of the drug today practiced in the hospitals, passing from a system of refueling of the supplyes of unit to a system that distributes single the prescription, therefore as already it happens in the pharmacies to the public.
That, even if only in part, already is realized for many drugs whose distribution happens for single patient on the base of demands that esplicitano the clinical motivations respect to one personalized specific precise diagnosis characterizing slowly a therapeutic one.
A favorable future arranges increased of personalized distribution could as an example offer ulterior to numerous advantages as the calculation of the cost of the therapy pharmacology.
At the moment, it puts into effect it them system of restoration of the supplyes of the units, already abandoned from years in the hospitals of the United States, and in via of abandonment in numerous European states, it does not concur single the computerized recording of the prescription; also however weekly magazine concurs (just in virtue of the presence of the druggist warehouse with the inside of the company) to limit the lyings in the unit to the strait medium requirementses, integrated from the so-called demands in regimen of ” urgency “.
With regard to it is well to specify that multiple they are the factors that can give origin to one ” demanded urgent ” of medicinal or of other druggist products.
Between the others:

  • drug prescription (or other material) re-entering in does not accustom them therapies of the not present unit and therefore in the druggist closet of the unit that demands it;
  • sottostima of the requirementses of one or more produced in the within of the programmed demand with consequent necessity of immediate restoration of the supply;
  • prescribed specific therapy from “external advisers” to the stay in hospital unit;
  • personalized therapy to domicile that one agrees to continue;
  • therapeutic emergency in critical situations;
  • coincidence of a number of treatments, for the same type of drugs, advanced to the customary one.

The reperibilità in real time of how much is necessary also to outside of the refueling programmed today is rendered possible thanks to the presence of a druggist warehouse near the Company single, raggiungibile from anyone in little minuteren, and that for variety and amount, it makes available the greater part of the therapeutic instruments necessary to satisfy the requirements charitable.


The decisions that define politics of supplyings of a sanitary company regard:

  • the corrected definition of the requirementses of goods and services to acquire;
  • the choices of Make or buy;
  • the location of the supplying sources and the ideal profile of the suppliers;
  • the choice of the tipologia of relation to establish with they;
  • the location of the variable ones regarding which monitorare the relationship in the time with they.

Until or today the companies mostly they have been concentrated on a relationship of traditional type with the suppliers.
The management of the supplying processes has realized in one series of essentially administrative activities and modest strategic content.
The evolution of the normative context of reference ( in particular the application of the D.lgs 229-reform ter ) has favorite a meaningful increase of the margins of autonomy of the manager that it will be found to take these decisions and to answer of the chosen goodness of the own ones in function of turns out obtained to you.
From the plan of institution of a cetralized system of management of the logistics of the sanitary material (drugs, garrisons, medication, prosthesis, dialitico material, etc), the whose objective is that one to concur to the rationalization and qualification of the performances of acquisition of necessary the druggist products to the garrisons and sanitary services of the sanitary Companies that have it undersigned, can effectively derive processes of rationalization-innovation of the activity of the field supplyings of the pharmacies hospitals worker.
In order to pick the opportunities of improvement tied to a management evoluta of the supply chain go aware however recognized the complexity of the problem and rationally governed and the relations that tie the sanitary company to the suppliers or partner.
For the attainment of the objective they are necessary:

  • a precise programming of the requirementses of drugs and necessary sanitary products;
  • a efficient and effective cetralized procedure of purchase that concurs a control of the costs, the quality and the uniformità of the products to the inside of homogenous categories.

Given the extreme differentiation of the characteristics of the Companies been involved in the plan, one in particular thinks that the phase of homogenization of the requirementses is a long process is difficult to realize, in particular when doctors will come faced problematic of purchase relative to specialistici products to high technology as an example in the within of the devices you or the protesico material, where the requirementses and the characteristics of the materials is closely correlates you to the tipologia of the patients deals to you and to the houses-mix total of the single Companies.
In the objective more general than control of the druggist expense the obtaining of prices of greater favor for the purchase of the products represents only one of the elements that can influence the economic data – moreover not even most important – from the moment that the composition of the costs for druggist productive factors mostly concentrates on a reduced number of products (the law of Pareto, in so far as, is of all the transferable one).
In kind as an example for the field drugs 80% of the expense are concentrated on drugs innovated to you, to high technology-high cost for which it thinks that the more effective operation for the rationalization of the expense consists in placing in action business initiatives that they see been involved various operating sanitary, medical and the druggists, in order to adopt initiatives times to the rigorous selection of the patients to deal, to the location of specific protocols of treatment, to the monitoring of the prescription, the appraisal of the outcomes.
In fact the recent outbreak of lines guides to which it has been assisted in the last years is gushed just from the requirement to induce the improvement of the quality and of the effectiveness of the clinical decisions with consequent improvement of it turns out you for the patient, reduction of the charitable variability and optimization of the resources.


Wanting to make a short analysis of the cetralized management of the warehouses, some positive points can be put in prominence and others denied to you to you.
In the first place, in spite of the national directives they are those to pursue one political of centralization, every Company before to proceed in such sense, and therefore to change puts into effect it them managerial structure, it is called in the first place to carry out an inner surveying finalized to become account of puts into effect them logistic costs and organizational deriving from the situation it puts into effect them; then a finalized study to comprise the advantages and disadvantages to which encounter would go if it passed to the centralization; in order then to be able to carry out an analysis cost-benefits deriving from the comparison of the 2 previous points.
From the business point of view, the main problem to face is that one of localization of the druggist warehouse following two criteria: the criterion of the minimal distribution cost, that localization of the warehouse in function of the geographic positioning of the question points must hold in particular consideration (every weighted one in function of the volume of the demands); the criterion of the minimal cost of warehouse constituted from the operating costs of the supplyes and from the fixed cost of structure.
An only cetralized druggist warehouse that supplies more Companies and that it replaces the warehouses of the pharmacies territorial hospitals worker and, could involve a possible total reduction of the supplyes of pharmacy – previa standardization of articles – with remarkable economies in the management of the warehouses, a saving in the spaces to they as an example dedicates to you and one simplification of the procedures administrative-accountants (the reference to an only “supplier” with consequent centralization also of the purchase orders).
But such it turns out to you can be only caught up to pact to manage an only warehouse that has the full responsibility of the management of the same one also in terms of supplying near the supplier s and is just this the critical point: this solution involves the sostenimento of costs necessarily elevates to you.
draft to sopportare of the cost added you regarding the state put into effect them. Moreover, if on one side such solution in along period stretches to make to diminish the structure costs, from the other involves an unavoidable increase of the incidence of the shipping charges.
Currently they are the suppliers who deliver the materials order you to the pharmacies and to support the transport costs.
In the hypothesis that the suppliers deliver to the cetralized warehouse, this last one they will weigh on the costs of second delivery to the companies.
The preparation from part of an external subject of the druggist products demands routinariamente does not produce economies of scale. In other words, if daily in a company “who” prepare in average 50 “undercarriages of unit” not ago difference prepares them. Always 50 remain and the partial recovery of personal inside to the company with the minimizzazione of the inner warehouse would come compensated from the staff who will have to take care itself some near that outside to the company.
As far as the efficiency of the service: the complexity of the deliveries and the tempistica will have carefully to be estimated in order not to pull down put into effect it them levels of performance.
The geographic distribution of the units and services of an big area needs to organize the distribution with means of transport used after the transport on road, with long times of transfer that demand ulterior guarantees and equipment for the corrected conservation of the materials also during you is made of transport.
If in consequence of the cetralized distribution cost a reduction of the distributive frequencies had to be assumed (es. one week rather than two as it is currently for the prevalence of the reparti/servizi) it would obtain the immediate consequence to increase the supplyes near the units, creating problems also on the forehead of the necessary spaces.
Residuare to inner the druggist warehouse the sun amount of materials for the “urgencies” means must in any case “stop” in supply the greater part of the products.
In fact, any druggist product, potentially, could be demanded ” with urgency ” to second of the various described situations over, that it means it must be equipped however of a business warehouse with the relative resources, in order to guarantee puts into effect it them levels of performances.
I1 druggist, in virtue of its preparation, is the only professional in a position to adding to value to the distributive activity of the drug supplying all the necessary information why I use it happens more in the appropriated way.
From the point of view of the responsibilities, it is not doubt that in case dì exsternalizations of the distribution would unavoidablly accompany parallel and also the transfer to the logistic operator of the responsibilities connected to the distributive action in order to:

  • eventual deficiencies of availability of the products demands near the druggist cetralized warehouse;
  • qualitative control of the products in entrance and escape;
  • management of not the conformities of the products delivered to the utilizzatori regarding the demanded characteristics;
  • rintracciabilità of the lotteries and procedures of recall in the case of business and/or ministerial signallings;
  • withdrawal of the past due products;

The druggist business in fact could not makes itself loaded with the responsibility of all that that is connected to the stock and to the distribution of materials whose manipulation is not carried out to the inside (meant like premises) of the U.O of Pharmacy, from staff in operating it and directly employee from the structure.


USL 8 of Arezzo manages six structures hospitals worker dislocated on an big area to the 55 Kmq.
Online with the general guideline of the SSN, the USL8 the management of the supplyes puts into effect a cetralized management of the own structures centralizing hospitals worker in an only warehouse centers them.
Such process has been put into effect gradually, closing man hand the warehouses hospitals worker and concentrating all the supplyes in the new warehouse center situated them near the structures of the complex hospital worker “Saint Donato” (Arezzo center).
The last warehouse hospital worker who had to be closed was that one of the hospital of Montevarchi.
This but, to the day today is still partially used for “technical” reasons in how much the warehouse centers them does not succeed to contain all the supplyes for six hospitals since had been constructed according to 5 hospitals, while from some year that one of SanSepolcro has joined also.


Figure n. 5.1 – Localization of the hospitals of USL 8 of Arezzo

In short to the warehouse the ability to the mag. centers them is gone to add “old” to the warehouse hospital worker of Montevarchi used like “valve of vent” for the exceeding goodses to Arezzo.
For book keeping reasons and managerial all the goodses journey in the warehouse center them and then, if there is need, they are transferred to the warehouse of Montevarchi, or in some cases directly in the units (es.: equipment).
The demands for supplying can be carried out solo from the warehouse center them. The supplyes are transported (as a result of one demanded from part of the unit hospital worker) from the warehouse directly center them to the unit petitioner.
For every hospital the transport happens in average 2 times the week, consequently every unit demands to the warehouse contained amounts of supplyes. The warehouse center them has been constructed in the ‘ 97, to the age was one of the warehouses to the vanguard.
It is born like “intelligent warehouse”, in the sense that totally was equipped of rotary closets to the inside of which came arranges the supplyes to you.
The warehouseman, or the person in charge, in order to capture the supplyes to send to the units, compiva an only turn in which it succeeded to capture all that that was necessary to it, in minor the possible time and without having to return behind.
To the day today the necessity to receive a number greater of supplyes, that it exceeds the ability to the closets and also the ability to the warehouse, has made yes that to the rotary closets they have joined of the traditional shelves.


The control of the sanitary expense Tuscany passes through the rationalization of the functions of administrative of the Sanitary Companies, second technical support the lines guides dictated from PSR 40 2002-2004.
C.d. the second phase of the company, in fact, will mark a deep transformation of the organizational order of the Sanitary Companies, which will go to shape themselves more and more like fornitrici of services to the person, while not the directly connected activities to the performance of charitable services will be managed to sovraziendale level.
The attainment of a advanced critical mass would have to above all concur recoveries of efficiency in terms of elimination and economies of scale of redundant activities, and could also become the occasion of a more complex engagement in terms of process reingineering finalized to type decisions make or buy .
The prechosen level for the management of the functions of administrative technical support is that one of the Immense Area.
The from Tuscany SSR is subdivided in three Immense Areas (Fiorentina Area, Tirrenica Area, Immense Area South), that is making aggregations of territorial contiguous Sanitary Companies head to a Company Hospital worker.
The Immense Areas, to the inside di.le which get exausted 97% approximately of sanitary mobility of the been involved Companies, are been born for purpose of sanitary programming, in how much characterized which amble to you optimal of government of the health; new the Slowly Sanitary one confers they now also functions of managerial type, to practice through of internal-company Consortia.
The functions prechoices for the start of the rationalization process are, like anticipated, purchases and logistics, that is the placed activities to mount of the chain of the value, that they represent 30% of the total sanitary expense.
The Consortia, therefore, will be people in charge of the accomplishment of contests to continuation which will come stipulate you “opened” contracts, which the that is Sanitary Companies will be able to join until the attainment of the quantitative prefixed maximum.
The choice of the sovraziendale level of the Immense Area has, in this within, the ulterior one pregio to reveal little impattante in the comparisons of the market, concurring the maintenance of a competitive order in much more important way regarding solutions than regional type, for how much they can be however characterizes to you of the prodotti/servizi for which it is possible to proceed to regional contests, in reason of their degree of standardizzabilità, of their frequency and volume of purchase, of the structure of the offer in the specific market.
That would have to introduce moreover smaller difficulties of coordination, species in the phase of normalization of the products that will have to precede the carry of contests of Immense Area.
The change therefore as described it involves a continuous exchange of give to you and information between the Companies of the Immense Area: the Region therefore has stipulated a protocol of understanding with Italian Mail that, between other asset, a collaboration finalized to the realization of the computer science platform of support also previews, the c.d. portale, where the Sanitary Companies will be able to publish bands and other documents, possession news of the contests in being and the possibility of adhesion to relati to you contracts, to carry out auctions on linens , etc.
In the portale they would have moreover to find space the marketplace previewed from the recent regulations concerning e-procurement in the P.A. and an area finalized to the monitoring, and containing, between the others, the Observatory of the Prices and the White one of the Suppliers.
The attended benefits, to regimen, come quantify to you in approximately 90 million euro to the year, in terms of reduction of the “sperequazione” on the prices (equal to 8% approximately, as it turns out from the analysis of give you of the Regional Observatory of the Prices), economies of volume, rationalization of the procedures (lessening of the contest procedures, introduction of instruments of e-procurement, reduction of the supplyes and greater control on the same ones).

Famous 40: Slowly Sanitary Regional


In spite of the guideline of the SSN it is that one to centralize the structures, and consequently also the warehouses, one thinks that the Virtual Warehouse can represent a model that, if applied correctly, can turn out preferibile is from an economic point of view that works them.
The developed analysis of continuation structure in two parts: it turns out obtained to you from the optimization of the supplyes, one short illustration of the obtainable advantages from the c.d. “advantages accessories”.
There is from emphasizing that to the state odierno a performance of the Virtual(MV) Warehouse to the single district hospital worker of Arezzo is unthinkable since is present a single warehouse.
A prerogative of the MV is the existence more warehouses on a circumscribed territory; greater it is the number of the present, greater warehouses will be the savings that will be able to be obtained.
Online with the dispositions dictated in new the Slowly Sanitary Regional 41 , that it confers to the sanitary districts the possibility to exercise functions of managerial type through shapes cooperatives, has extended the study, beyond that to the warehouse of Arezzo, also to that one of Siena and Florence (fig. 5,2) territorial contiguous ones.


Figure n. 5.2 – Localization of the warehouses taken like reference in the study

The study carries out on the three different warehouses, but to esemplificativo level, we will use for all give to you inherent to Arezzo.
In the first place for being able to operate on such structures, than until that moment they have I independently churn one from the others, it is necessary to establish a common protocol on which constructing an effective integration, it that is must omogeneizzare the products and the procedures that will agree to share.
This “preparatoria” phase must be picked from the management sanitary like an occasion in order to put into effect a reingenerizzazione of the processes tending above all to simplify and to render more snelli many procedures trying to eliminate inefficiencies and to reduce lessened the bureaucratic passages that considerable slow down the development of operations 42 .
An other problem to face in such phase is that one of the realization of a computer science net that goes to then constitute the “skeleton” on which basing interaziendale integration and the exchange of information and resources.
Placed the bases one can be proceeded with the ABC analysis of the products stopped in warehouse obtaining typical classification of the assets according to Principle 80/20 of Pareto.
The sharing of the resources and the information, is sure obtainable for how much concerns the products of wraps “B” and “C”, representing these strategic materials, even if null preclude similar plans does not apply to you also to those of fascia”A “.
Returning to the study in issue, in order not to bring back an infinite series of they give to you and graphical we will stop ourselves on the study of the management of a single product. To the ends of the such demonstration criterion can think valid in how much if we took part on the totality of the present products in warehouse the advantages would increase more in way that proporziona they.
We consider our product, that we will call “Produced To”, contained in the three warehouses. The sum of the costs anniversaries of the single constitute warehouses the cost total of the district.
The product To introduces characteristic following: unit price 10, the every day costs of stock are of 0,2% for present unit of goods in warehouse, costs of order 43 are quantifiable in 350, costs of transfer 44 150, every time that catches up the level of I reorder the acquired amount is of 500 units.
To this point it is opportune to continue our study on two levels parallels: TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT in which we will calculate the costs gushed from the single managements of the present warehouses in the district and MANAGEMENT VIRTUAL WAREHOUSE in which we will calculate the costs of the combined management of the warehouses.
The currently used situation is the TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT based on which, for the product To, in virtue of lead a Time of delivery of the suppliers of seven days, the level of I reorder is equal to 220 units, and the emergency supply is of 100.
In the MANAGEMENT VIRTUAL WAREHOUSE, instead, it is succeeded to eliminate the requirement to stop supplyes of emergency, so that it is assisted to a cost reduction of stoccaggio that, in theirs main member, depend proportionally on the volume of the present goodses in warehouse 45 .
A level is obtained therefore of reorders par to 120 units and one stock of equal emergency to zero.


Figure 5.4 – Management Virtual Warehouse.

The zero setting of the emergency stock has been rendered possible, in how much, the case in which a warehouse you finish the supplyes, the provider provvederà to transfer produced from a supplied warehouse that devoid one.
Considering that the medium distance to cover is of 60 Km and that the transport is carried out on road, the products will be recapita to you maximum in 30 minuteren from the demand.
Putting to comparison two diagrams (fig. 5,5) it is evidenced as with the Virtual Warehouse the red line representative the emergency stock is passing (equal to zero) and that blue representative the level of I reorder considerable is traslata towards the bottom


Figure n. 5,5 – Comparison between Separate Management and Management Virtual Warehouse.

We analyze like such effect infuences the costs annual totals of warehouse:
in the TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT the costs annual totals are give from the sum of the order costs and costs to you of stoccaggio;
in the MANAGEMENT VIRTUAL WAREHOUSE beyond to being present these two tipologie of costs, if of it it adds an other, the transfer costs, that is those face to you in order to transfer amount of products from a warehouse to the other.
Simulating with an appropriate software the management anniversary of warehouse for the “Product To”, with the parameters previously brought back, following is obtained turned out:


Table 5,4 – It turns out you of the simulation.

In the case in issue, with the Virtual Warehouse, it is resolutions to obtain a saving of 22% already from the first year.
In the years succeeded such percentage can increase thanks to you to an ulterior deriving optimization of the supplyes gives: one study of the requirements of the single warehouses, historical analyses, greater acquired information….
In the following diagram the course of the costs puts itself to comparison annual totals of warehouse in the SEPARATE MANAGEMENT and the MANAGEMENT VIRTUAL WAREHOUSE.


Figure n. 5.6 – Course of the costs totals of warehouse

Interesting to ask itself as it is resolutions to obtain such result. To such purpose we can decompose the costs totals of warehouse (inherent to the supplyes) in costs of order(fig. 5.7) and costs of stoccaggio (fig. 5,8).


Figure n. 5,7 – Course of the costs totals of order


Figure n. 5,8 – Course of the costs totals of stoccaggio.

Of the 2 tipologie of costs famous as the saving is characterized nearly exclusively from the optimization of the stock costs, while the order costs, being independent costs from the present amount in warehouse, are diminished only leggermente.
Considering then that every USL acquires approximately 14 million euro the drug year, and rapportando it turns out obtained to you from our simulation to the totality of the present products in warehouse, estimates a annual saving of 3.080.000 of euro on every warehouse, therefore a district saving very 9.240.000.
This saving is inherent only to the optimization of the management of the supplyes, but thanks to integration of the resources and information can be caught up ulterior turn out to you.
As an example see again the process of supplying in which remarkable resources with the involvement (in average) of 30 persons are employed.
The simplification of such procedures and the fact to carry out them to cetralized level would concur ulterior savings, that they will have to then be quantifies you of case in case.
The optimization of the process can therefore be represented:


Figure 5,9 – Feature from Presentation CONSIP on the “Plan for the rationalization of the expense for sanitary goods and services”. Francisco Peacocks. Roland Berger & Partner

Moreover single USL 8 of Arezzo in 2002 has carried out 18,413 purchase orders, for which it has received 17114 invoices. That it means one medium of 320 every day invoices. For being able to carry out the procedures inherent to the recording, control, catalogue, emission order ofs payment… are necessary, also in such case, the employment of huge working resources. Esteem that by means of the service of integrated supply, supplied with the Warehouse Virtual, can carry the received invoices less than 1000, raising the staff employed from a consisting workload being able it therefore to employ in more profitable other asset 46 .

Note 41: PSR Tuscany
Note 42: Marino Vincenzo, general executive manager Unitec (
Note 43: Cost inherent to one single operation of purchase
Note 44: Cost inherent to one single operation of transfer.
Note 45: Marino Vincenzo, general executive manager Unitec (
Note 46: The entire study has been lead in collaboration and according to directives of Dr. Marino Vincenzo, general manager Unitec.


In the analysis as soon as taken in consideration it has been demonstrated like with the Virtual Warehouse it is possible to obtain a saving of 22% regarding the traditional management.
It must emphasize but that that one adopted is a model in which an only product with determined characteristic is considered.
The parameters taken in consideration represent therefore a ” situation type ” and have been adopt to you in order to supply one demonstration the how much next one to the truth.
Where the MV comes applied to the management of products that introduce various characteristics (spin index, unit cost of stock, shipping charges….) or to a warehouse that a multitude of products contains, various percentages of saving will be obtained.
It must but to emphasize that based on the UNITEC esteem the obtainable medium saving would not have to discostarsi from turns out to you is achieved in the demonstration or perlomeno they would have to be gone around around to 20% already from the first year, with good margins of for the improvement 47 .
Seen the validity of the model and the inequivocabili advantages that involve, one thinks that the Virtual Warehouse can proporsi in the immediate future which new ” way to make d istrict ” delineating new horizons of efficiency for all the PMI and district truths in which are possible to activate a coordination and one effective sharing of information and resources.

Note 47: Marino Vincenzo, general manager Unitec (


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(prof. Piero Formica “, mercati fisici e mercati concettuali”)

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