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Faculty of Economy
“Foreign trade”


Germano Fasano


Roberta Smaila


Case Unitec



The economic and social scenes of end to the century are determining in the enterprises of all the world a deep organizational and managerial review of which it is necessary to take action for being able to adapt themselves and “to take advantage of” the effects, than could be found of wide capacity.

In last the forty years also the Italian economic system has been therefore characterized from deep processes of restructure in the business organizational configurations, in the productive structures, the processes of working and the relations between enterprises.

Until the years the sixty and seventy market it was in strong expansion and for the companies the strategic factor was in the ability to answer to the high question with sufficient amount.
It has been begun to doubt of the validity of such productive, organized system according to rigid criteria and hierarchical, in years ‘ 80, that is when the markets by now were saturate and the consumers did not please themselves more than produced “generic”, but they expected produced the most possible supporters with their requirements, in a word “personalizes to you”.

In those years therefore one assisted to the passage from companies many vertical to the pushed terziarizations.
The enterprises slimmed in fact their structure, having like reference model the lean production ¹.
Of it achieved the necessity to learn to manage the relationships with the new productive units, than they were found more and more frequently to the outside of the company (sub-suppliers²) and having therefore to not only diffuse the culture of the quality total to the inside but also to the outside, towards that is the sub-suppliers.
This new way to see the “system enterprise”, implied a change in the subdivision of the tasks, the enterprises began in fact to entrust determined activities to other companies, “taking advantage of” to full load the specialization and experience of these last ones and being able to concentrate itself completely therefore on “Core business³”.

To entrust determined duties to specialized enterprises, means a cost reduction for the yielding company, since companies that systematically carry out that activity will develop sure it better than who ago occasionally.

The companies, to the days ours, are obliged to create an endowed product of good quality and to offer it to a good price since the competition by now has been strengthened in all the fields.
In the last decade in fact unsurmountable considered barriers have fallen once, allowing therefore to the enterprises of the emerged countries of the Far East (Korea, China, Malesya), of the East Europe and South America of valid like concurrent of the Italian enterprises.

In such highly competitive context the enterprises are, therefore, calls to face radical and unexpected changes in a climate dominated from deep uncertainty.
The ability to redesign the production processes and the organizational architecture and the ability to renew just the patrimony of acquaintances becomes the fundamental elements in order to achieve a support competitive advantage.

To such aim, an instrument of last generation, than already many companies uses, is integrated supply 4 , that not particular critic allows they to transfer to the outside the activity of supplying of those assets or for which the enterprises does not decide of the necessary technical competences.
A new strategic approach derives some therefore, with which the enterprises they face the purchases.
The concentration of the investments and the organizational efforts on the activities that the enterprise carries out better of the contenders, concurs in fact, to guarantee rendering greater from the employment of the own resources.

Strengthening the own distinguish competences the enterprise elevates barriers in order protect the competitive advantage from risks of erosion from part of puts into effect them or new concurrent.
The other side to transfer activity to suppliers specializes means to you to benefit of the investments, of the innovative abilities, the particular abilities of other enterprises, without having to face the costs necessary in order to adapt themselves to the competition.

Notes 1: A new way to reason stiff to increase the flexibility of the enterprise through a rethinking of the entire flow of creation of the value, from the planning until the management of the orders.

Notes 2: Enterprises that execute workings of thirds party on behalf or realize produced on store clerk.
Notes 3: Activity tied to the business object and high added value
Notes 4: Source: Unitec GmbH


1.1. Definition of “purchases” and “supplyings”

The technology has transformed world-wide the economic scene, marking a change speed that probably will continue to along.
The development of the transports and the communications has provoked the increase of the markets is of the question that of the offer to world-wide level, creating an only display window to the inside of which the competition is extremely high.
This has involved the modification of the strategies business and consequently an evolution of the field has been taken place with the time also acquires.
Constant search of lessening of the costs is being gone towards one and trying to render them also most possible flexible, containing fixed costs 5 to favor of variable costs 6 , for being able them therefore to adapt to the course of the transactions.
The fixed cost reduction involves, on one side the control of the total dimension of the organizations, eliminating those structures that are not directly in relation with Core business or with the maintenance of know-how the 7 and from the other the purchase from external organizations of the goods and services previously produced to the inside (es. from organic fixed to a tantum job, from inner production of the services to the purchase of such services).
Table 1.1, extension as the management of the purchases cannot any be moved from the business strategy but indeed is one logical descendancys and of extension its evolution in the time.

Stage of evolution. Primary task.
Purchases. To carry out the purchase to optimal conditions.
Supplyings. To assure the availability of refueling to forehead of a data requirementses taking advantage of all the potentialities of the service.

Tab.1.1 Stage of evolution of the purchases

1°stadio: The purchases.

It can be noticed as to the beginning it was spoken about simple purchases. The indication of what to acquire came obviously from the inner question and often who generated the question carried out “a technical” role, in how much it defined of what it needed, the essential characteristics of the good and could impose therefore also ties to the choices on the market.
In many cases therefore the petitioner interacted directly with the market of the offer and relegated the function acquires in the role of pure executor.
In this way they did not come taken advantage of the full potentialities of a function specialized in the business activity them, with the risk that penalized the organization in terms is economic that managerial.

2° stage: Supplyings.

Subsequently it is spoken about supplyings and in this phase the management of the sources becomes a strategic factor of guarantee of turns out to you, of cost reduction (through the rationalization of the relationships and the reduction of their number) and of adaptation of the performances to the operating and qualitative requirements of the company.
In the system of supplyings, therefore, the objective is moved from the operating management of the process of purchase to the strategic management of the supplying sources, with consequent strengthening of the relationship with the suppliers.
Table 1.2, puts in evidence like also the function acquires with passing of the years and evolution of the economic scenes, has changed the own purposes and modified the own vision of the brought back parameters over.
It is not spoken more than purchases like than a service or about one simple function but of true and just a process.
The “vendors” once, hour are more seen like collaborators/partners with which creating longer and stable relationships of mutual collaboration.
For how much he concerns instead the purposes we can notice as to the beginning the purchases were focus to you single in the search of a product with a good relationship quality/price, subsequently the attention moves itself on the entire cost that is born moving of the entire bureaucratic machine, in order to succeed in to see the purchase like true and just an investment.
Obviously it is for being able to establish stable relationships and long-lasting, than for being able to observe the costs of an entire process, the company needs of a longer time, therefore a horizon of short term is not more sufficient.


Fig 1,2 evolution of supplyings.

Notes 5
: Costs, whose amount does not depend on the service or sales volume. They are in fact one constant.
Notes 6: S It is had when one exists proportionality directed between all in cost and produced amount.
Notes 7: With of acquaintances, instruments and resources to disposition of a company.

1.2. Conditions of Supplyings.

Every organization inserts to the inside of an economic cycle, producing goods and services and acquiring from the outside material, goods and services to transform in the production processes or to use to the inside in order to maintain the necessary degree of functionality.
The purchases have an infuence on the economic performances, work them, financial institutions of the organization through four main factors:

  • The paid price, that it contributes directly or indirectly to the determination of the cost of the produced goods and services.
  • The quality in entrance, than will be reflected is on the quality of the same production that on its cost, through rendered, refuse, re-workings and guarantees.
  • The times of supplying that influence on the Time to market of the production and determine the levels of supply to maintain.
  • Terms of payment and level of the supplyes.

They affect the general ability to the enterprise to compete in the economic system in which it operates and therefore the expectation of the organization in the comparisons of the system of supplyings is that they come satisfied three requirement of general character:

  • The economization, that is the control of the costs through the search of the best deal conditions than purchase on the market.
  • The effectiveness, that is the ability to govern the market of the offer obtaining levels of quality, performances and services such accessories to optimize the employment of the assets/services acquires to you, reducing or cancelling the refuse incidence, rendered, contested.
  • The efficiency, that is times of answer to the question such not to constitute a factor penalizing for the operational cycle, diminishing the inner costs.

1.3. Marketing of purchase.

A new concept that is making in the last years in the field of the purchases is the so-called marketing of purchase wide.
With this term one agrees with of the tending actions obtaining from just arranges of acquisition of the resources such advantages to put the own enterprise in conditions of competitiveness regarding concurrent enterprises 8 .
The transposition of the methodology of definition of the marketing plan to the purchases and comprises the systematic study of the atmosphere of supply of the markets and the products and the suppliers.
Draft of with of structured activity, not occasional, of iteractiv nature, that it has for object the monitoring of the supplying markets.
The purchase marketing at least second influences the maintenance of relations evolving with the suppliers two various modalities:

Role of filter, in how much in the phase of definition of the purchase strategies is shaped like propedeutica activity to the creation of a relationship evolving and long duration

Role of feedback, in how much the market analysis allows to be dawns to you regarding the new foreign standards.

The purchase marketing takes therefore the input from the business strategy and proceeds to the definition and performance of the purchase strategy, articulating itself in 4 sequence steps:

Analysis of the supply atmosphere.
Opportunity and risk analysis.
Definitions of the purchase strategies.
Definition of the procurement.mix.

The first phase concerns the analysis acclimatizes them, to the aim to characterize the opportunities and the risks legacies to the interaction with the market of the supply; this phase turns out to be preliminary to the appraisal of the options of purchase strategy, also in optical of appraisal of make or buy.
The formulation of such strategy gushes from the coherent combination of the mix of decisional levers (produced, price, sources and relations).

Notes 8: Source: Adaci of Turin.

1.4. It is made of the business strategy of purchase.

1° phase: analysis of the supply atmosphere.
Every field is the result of the equilibrium between various competitive forces that act on prices, costs and investments whose change determines in the time the profit of the field. The competition in a field stretches to carry the rate of return of the understood one invested them towards a rate limit, defined from the conditions of perfect competition.
The enterprises in order to turn out competitive and not to risk to exit from the market, will have to try to have rendering not inferior to this threshold limit, also who invests in a field not inferior chip ax rendering, from the moment that has the possibility to invest in other fields.

The Porter economist characterizes five competitive factors that demonstrate as the competition of a field goes beyond the behavior of single the concurrent ones.
Rivality between the enterprises, the contenders, the customers, the suppliers, the possible substitutive products and the income of new upgrades them contenders determines in fact the intensity of the competition.
The attraction of the closely tied field is therefore to the profit that is the fruit of the evolution in the time of the force ratios of the propose factors under in detail.

  • Entered new threat.
    The companies that enter in a field have like objective to conquer market shares to losses of the by now mature enterprises of the field.
    Usually they carry ahead one political of penetration, based on selling prices many bottoms that cover the production costs offering a profit margin much bottom.
    This obligates the present companies in the field therefore to having to lower also they the selling prices or to offer to the good to the usual price guaranteeing but one quality or a better service.
  • Intensity of the competition.
    The companies put in action all continuously the strategies possible in order to exceed the competition and to maintain the own market share intact.
    The enterprises are defied in fact in battles of price, promotional campaigns, launch of new products that obviously obligate all the enterprises of the field to act consequently, in order not to run the risk to exit, turn of some year, from the market.
  • Competition of the substitutive products.
    The enterprises do not compete alone with the companies of the same field, but also with those manufacturers of products alternated to you, but those assets that also having the same characteristics cannot however satisfy the same need, and therefore if offered to a convenient price could also attract the attention of the customer.
  • To be able contractual of the customers.
    The customers are an indirect force that feeds the competition between enterprises.
    The companies in fact also not to lose market shares try to please the requirements of the customers who usually regard reductions of price, good quality of the product and the offered service.
    This to always satisfy the customer increases the competition between the enterprises that are obliged to being always competitive also seeing to diminish their percentage of profit.
  • To be able contractual of the suppliers.
    The suppliers with their selling prices very condition the course of their companies customers and the entire field.
    They can put into effect in fact of the increases or the reductions of prices that will be reflected on the final price of the good, putting therefore also in serious danger the competitiveness of the final company.

2° phase: opportunity and risk analysis.

One of the methodologies currently more diffuse for the appraisal of fields and phenomena is analysis SWOT 9 .
The field or the conditions appraisal object, in fact, must be deepening studies you to the aim to bring to light all their characteristics, structural and conjunctural, and to evidence eventual relations and synergies with other proposals and situations.
In order to make that he is not sufficient to know in the detail the specific topic but the full acquaintance of the context to the inside becomes necessary of which this is placed.
Once collections all the information that are thought are necessary for the definition of a picture, possible the most complete how much, of the specific topic and the context to the inside of which this is placed, it is possible to proceed to the appraisal.
Through analysis SWOT it is possible to evidence the points of force and weakness to the aim to make to emerge those that they come thought able to favor, or to hinder or to delay, the pursue of determines to you objects to you.
More specifically in analysis SWOT endogenous and exogenous factors are distinguished.
The customary terminology distinguishes the endogenous factors between force points and points of weakness and those exogenous between opportunity and risks. Between first all are considered those variable ones that make part integrating of the same system, on which are possible to take part in order to pursue object to you prefixed.
Between the second ones, instead, variable external to the system that but can condition it are positively that are found negatively.
In this last case it is not possible to take part directly on the phenomenon but it is opportune to predispose control structures that characterize the exogenous agents and of it they analyze the evolution to the aim to prevent the events denied to you and to take advantage of those positi to you.
The possible factors to consider are following:

  • Dimension and trend of increase of the volumes of purchase of the own company and the contenders.
  • Competitive structure (in terms of quotas and concentrations) of the market of supply and the market of outlet in which the company it competes.
  • Structures of cost, profit of the products.
  • Presence of barriers to the entrance of the field.

3° phase: definition of the purchase strategy.

In order to operate effectively in a necessary atmosphere of supply is that the strategy of the purchases strongly is integrated with the business strategy.
Three are the factors that concur to render this grip necessary integration:

  • The elevated competition in which the companies they operate
  • The atmosphere of supply of the companies, than is always become more dynamic.
  • The change of the nature and the scopes of the function acquires.

They have been identified three possible strategies that they vary to varying of the contractual weight that possesses the company in the negotiations trades them.

  • Elevated to be able contractual of the company.
    In this situation the company is found in a force position that allows them to concentrate the supply also towards little suppliers, also its purchasing power is much fort.
    They will be in fact the suppliers to having itself to adapt to the requirements of the enterprise customer in order not to risk to lose it.
    Being the subject more strongly the company has the possibility to ask reductions in price, to obligate the supplier as an example to equip itself of adequate logistic structures and fargli undertaking programs of improvement of the product.
    In this situation therefore the company it will orient towards politics of the buy, but not to produce the material in the own plants to acquire it from thirds party, trying to maintain possible the supplyes more low, thus diminishing the logistic costs and obligating the supplier to frequent deliveries.
  • Equilibrium in the contractual power.
    In this situation instead you is true and just an equilibrium, that it puts the two against parts on same the slowly contractual one.
    In this case, the company tries to shrink the circle of the suppliers between those more trusts to you and the volume of the supplyes is advanced but has the function of “bearing”.
    For how much it concerns the choice between buy and make comes estimated of time in time to second of the situation.
  • Elevated to be able contractual of the supplier.
    In this situation instead the company it is found in a substantial position of disadvantage, that it involves a low contractual power that obligates the enterprise to adopt politics of the make, that is it is passed from the purchase of the finished product to the purchase of the raw materials, organizing one inner production with programs directed to the control of the quality and its improvement.
    An other objective is the continuous search of supplying products alternated to you so as to to differentiate the park, diminishing their contractual power.

4° phase: Definition of the procurement.mix.

The decisional levers of purchase (procurement mix) derive from the levers of marketing called with 4P (price, product, promotion, destination).
The purchase marketing therefore you transfer the own concepts of the marketing to the purchases, suggesting to define the mix more opportune between:

  • Product to acquire (relative decisions to the materials and the technologies).
  • Price to accept (to define the aspects trades them of the supplies).
  • Sources of purchase (appraisal of the number of suppliers, the markets).
  • Relations to undertake with the supplier (contractual tipology, procedures of coordination, control.).

Here of continuation the four will be dealt in the detail levers, as soon as cited:

  • The product.
    The produced lever can be defined in terms of material or technology used for production. A same product can introduce itself on the market constituted from various tipology of material, which various performances, various level qualitative, different facility of working correspond and it can therefore to turn out more or less profitable. The product is therefore one directly impatta lever of purchase that on the quality of the ended one, the machinability and the production costs. In the same way the technology, than is employed in order to realize the product, has a its impact on the compatibility and quality of the production process beyond on the technological level of the finished product.
    This last one has a particular strategic importance above all if one is pursued differenzzazione strategy turns to the innovation and improvement of the product.
  • The price.
    The lever price has an impact directed on the cost of the product and exists various approaches for its determination based on the various tipology of purchase. Generic products 10 generally are quoted from the market, while instead produced specific they demand one quotation from part of the supplier who can vary in acquired relation to the quantity and the difficulty of finding on the market.
    Various instead the determination of the price if is in presence of an only supplier or more supplying: in the first case it will resort to the negotiation, but to the negotiation vis-a-vis of the terms of supply, in according to case they will be taken in offered considerations more of price, with the choice of the more convenient.
  • Sources of purchase.
    The purchase sources are the lever correspondent to the distributive channel of the traditional marketing: that is in this phase it must determine the more suitable channel to use for being able to provision the product.
    The first step to complete is that one to estimate the number of suppliers and to decide therefore if to use an only supplier, or to reduce the park simply supplying or instead opposite choice to increase the number of suppliers of assets alternated to you.
    Subsequently it will come analyzed the supply risk and after appraisal of the performances carried out from the suppliers based on of the parameters will be one.
  • Relations to undertake with the supplier.
    On the base of the selection of the purchase sources the last lever of the purchase sources will be determined then: the choice that is of the relations to establish with the supplier.
    The relationship modalities can be grouped in three classes: traditional that is based on classics relationships of market, integrated where particular agreement that is stipulated it takes in consideration the synchronization of the supply flows and evoluto that it previews a true one and just relationship of partnership.
    On the base of these three tipology can be defined various contractual tipology, example contracted open or traditional contracts, to agree coordination procedures in order to define variations of price and the amount and to define eventual modalities of rendered restitutions of contest to you.

Notes 9: procedure of logical type, mutuato from the business economy, that it concurs to render the information systematic and fruibili collections approximately a specific topic and supplies fundamental information for the political definition and lines of participation.
Notes 10: Knows also Commodities.

1.5. New horizons for the enterprises today.

In the past years, the Italian and French automotive houses had asked their suppliers (between which primary multinational companies) one cost reduction of 15% in the arc of 3 years.
A reduction of the own costs is not thinkable but without to innovate in all the fields and in particular in the purchases, that they weigh for beyond 50% of the total of the turnover.
Today therefore the companies manufacturers of all the world are see again the modalities with which they buy members and services.
And, perhaps for before the time from the oil crisis of the years the seventy and successive deficiencies of materials, this focus has become one priority for the apex.
In the attempt to reduce lead Time, to answer more fastly to their customers and their requirements, to improve the quality and at the same time to increase the efficiency, the companies leader have begun to manage their channels of supply with absolutely new modalities.
Often rethinking also to it puts into effect them borders of the “own companies”, have introduced two important elements in the management of supplyings of the organizations:

  • The production, more and more often, to supplyes zero, that it involves the reduction of the possible supplyes lessened, that in its turn presupposes the discouragement of the times of delivery and management, with more frequent deliveries and a good level of quality of acquired (“the zero defects”), in order to increase therefore the production flexibility (loto unitary) and to reduce immobilizations financial institutions and the operating costs of the supplyes.
  • Terziarizzazione of the determined services or of is made, in order to slim the organization, to render it flexible, to reduce the fixed costs in favor of those variable ones.
    This involves one more complex integration between the market of the question and that one of the offer, and consequently, the modification of the role and the modalities of operation of supplyings.

This new vision is centered more on the search, selection and management of the suppliers who on the purchase process. The main objective is to identify supplying stable, diminishing the times of supplying and the prices, and maximizing the performances, through an adapted system of selection management and negotiation.
All that becomes necessary as a result of the ascertainment that the added value has gone progressively diminishing in the course of last the four decades while, in the same period a strong need of specialization has been manifested in our factories.
In passed the manager, they had been entrusted, for the happened one of the enterprise, to the vertical integration.
Today, the complexity of the products and the competitiveness of the markets have carried the companies to shrink their sphere of activity in order to focus itself on a limited set of Core competences .
In order to make that they have entrusted partner that possessed particular competences or that they had market access.
In 1990, the average cost of materials, members and services acquires from all the companies to you American manufacturers was more of 75% of the value of their products.
In 1960 it was 40%, in 1945 was 35%. This increase of the cost of the products acquires you to the outside is served sure to push the attention of the management to the supplying activities.
That it pushes the enterprises to work in this direction, is therefore the birth of new necessities.
The companies that mainly watch in this direction are the enterprises that for the management of the information to the inside of their company use systems ERP.
In the following pages they come exactly deals such systems to you in the detail, putting in evidence the positive characteristics and above all their infuence on the field of the purchases, than is more interests to us.

1.6. Systems ERP: Signals.

For “Business Informative System” they agree “with of business persons, equipment and procedures whose task is that one to produce the information that serve in order to operate in the enterprise and to manage it”.
In practical draft of all the important information used in company, joined to the computer science infrastructure (hardware, software and nets) necessary in order to manage them and to the persons who make use of such give you for the development of the own activity.

In such context therefore with acronym E.R.P. (Enterprise Resource Planning) agrees to identify the integrated systems of management, that is total of applications software integrated, that the important information of the company in an only base manage all give to you cetralized and that varieties of activity of the company concur to manage in co-ordinate way one.
For being which flexibilities of architecture consider you such ERP systems must possess characteristics, effective atmosphere of personalize, various facilities of cable, availabilities in languages and localizations, possibility to model complex corporate structures, wide range of models of control of management of easy construction and totally integrated.

Acronym E.R.P. (Enterprise Resource Planning) has been coined at the beginning of years ‘ 90 in order to indicate the new integrated managerial systems for manifacturing companies that were an evolution of the previous products constructed on the famous models like MRP (Material Requirement Planning) and MRP II (Manufacturing Resource Planning).
The birth of such systems just in those years is not sure a case. The companies began in fact to having the requirement of a system evolution that it allowed they to manage the business activities in effective, transparent way avoiding every possible loss of time and resources for the management of the information.
The enterprises were evolving and they were making it fastly, was taking place in fact one new opening towards the outside.
The enterprises were not pleased more than to sell and to buy assets produced in the own zone, they began therefore to try national suppliers and customers.
Also these barriers, once considered unsurmountable, began to become labili species when the idea of an European market and one was shown only currency.
It arrives you to years 2000 and found a consolidation in the relationships with own the partner European, was begun to see the world like an only great market, in which not there were borders and obstacles to the free commerce.
It was begun to speak therefore about globalization.
As it can be understood the size of job and information to deal and to manage increased breathtakingly. Since confirmation said how much is sure the distribution of the attache’s to the various business units.
Thirty years ago in fact in proportion were 4 laborers and 1 employee. Hour instead to 4 employs to you corresponds 1 single laborer. All that sure has had to the increase of the information to manage, but also because the qualified management became one of the main ones objects you of the enterprise.

1.6.1. As a system ERP works.

The ERP is defined like “an architecture software that facilitates the flow of information between all the inner functions to the society which human manufacture, logistics, finance and resources”.
The ERP are of the software, plan to you in order to automate the “organizational ruotines” and for model the strategic processes of the enterprise, from the finance to the sales, with the objective to realize integration of the information possessed to the inside of the enterprises, and the sharing of the same ones between, the enterprise and its patners.
Applications ERP, in fact, reduce the costs of coordination of the transactions, that is lower the cost of “government” of the interdependences, but of it they do not modify the nature.
In short the advantage of systems ERP is that one to allow the realization of connections between the various ones is made of the chain of the value to inferior costs and more fastly of the systems informed to you traditional, concurring to acquire a support competitive advantage in the comparisons of the contenders who such systems do not use or they do not have correctly implements to you.
Moreover systems ERP concur to codify the acquaintance remarkablly, lowering some the costs of its spread to the inside of the company.
System ERP operates through a database common situated in the heart (to the center) of the same system.
Such database it interacts with all the applications, so as to guarantee the lack of redundancy between they give and integrity to you of the aforesaid system. With these systems a “integration of the business informative system sin from its conception” is had, that is the informative system is born already integrated is under the logical-organizational profile, is under the profile software and hardware.
Planned sin from the origin integration of all the business functions in a unitary system, without duplication of arches to you and without re-insertion activity they give to you.
A system ERP is composed from several modules everyone of the which overload information of the several business divisions.
There are modules works them for every “business unit” business, as an example a module for sales, one for the purchases, one for the finance, the human resources and therefore via.

1.6.2. The advantages derive to you from the adoption of systems ERP.

Being integral a computer science solution that all the business functions, systems ERP concur at least potentially with every subject (), independently from the hierarchical level in which it is found, one equal visibility of the business processes.
That is possible thanks to database relational was flavored, that they allow to have a more transparent and “governabile” organization, thanks to the possibility of being able to decide in real time of the necessary and always reliable information.
With systems ERP they are avoided, therefore, regarding the traditional systems the misalignments informed to you, than they can be verified, between the several business functions.
With such system they avoid also the different of give to you according to “codifiche” that, rendered problematic, if not quite impossible the transfer of gives to you between the various applications.
An integrated informative system like that ERP, beyond concurring a “such total informative interconnection” to allow to every operator is a transparent vision of all the business processes, than the possibility to work on they give to you reliable and it aligns to you, always it affects the quality of the job and on the quality of the decisional process, lowering it is the uncertainty acclimatizes them is that relational one.
The existence of a database common and, consequently, of gives to your only and was flavored, concurs to take decisions in a context of greater certainty.
It becomes possible in fact, through opportune analyses of give, to increase the degree to you of preview of the events that will be taken place.
Applications ERP reduce the intraziendali costs of coordination and Inter business, they in particular favor:

Integration between the various ones is made of the chain of the value.
The greater integration works them, allowing one better integration of the operating activities.
The division and the coordination of the job.
Integration of the control and programming systems.
Cognitive integration during the phase of development of the application.

he first one of the cited points over regards integration of the various ones is made of the chain of the value, that is the ability to the flows informed you to connect the operating organizational units, in order to improve the level of service of the company.
In such optical savings in the times and costs of transmission of the information between the organizational units are come true therefore, more not managed like isolated units, but strongly concentrated in the within of one “chain of value 11 “.
Times and costs of the decisional processes turn out kinsmen: strong integration of the strategic and operating activities concurs to improve the convergence of the contributions of the various subjects in several the decisional processes. The greater integration works them is realizable thanks to the spread of common languages and was flavored, that is to the “test ualizzazione of the processes operated to you”, that more fluid communication concurs one and therefore, one greater ability to coordination between the several organizational units.
From that drift an improvement in the times of transmission of the information between the organizational units since codifies it of the information of it concurs a easyr transfer in the time and the space.
The increase of the degree of usefullness of the information and the percentage of their use: the textualization of the business processes with the spread of languages you flavored yourself, favors the production of “important” information and of easy and opportune I use; The process of division and coordination of the job is facilitated from the coordination and communication systems (e-mail, software to grupware and workflow, possibilities to realize Intranet ad hoc) often enclosed in applications ERP.
Such systems allow a simplified management of the job in team and of it they support also the creation independently from the physical positioning of the subjects, also resorting to modality of telelavoro.
The systems of planning and control are deeply influence to you from the adoption of systems ERP that improve the amount and the quality of the information available for the decisional system, availability that strongly influences also the choices of centralization/decentralization on whose presupposed they are thinks to you and realizes the organizational orders to you.
Such systems demand in all make (planning, increasing, modification/personalization) one deep collaboration between customers and technicians/planners.

1.6.3. The costs derive to you from the adoption of systems ERP.

The adoption of a system ERP is a decision much complex, that it demands a careful appraisal of the costs – benefits to it associates to you and whose definition involves the involvement of many competences that go from the directional and organizational advising for the definition of the model of business of reference, to the optimization of the choices of technological matrix.
The more critical moment of systems ERP is, that one of the “implementazione”, in how much demands a total ripensamento of the business procedures, not only from the point of view of the flows informed to you, but also of their “organizational” formulation.
Demanding remarkable organizational changes, in the phase of implementazione of systems ERP often it is found to us to face strong organizational resistances.
Therefore it is necessary that there is a clear support of the business apex in the comparisons of the plan, a strong involvement of the customers, the contribution of resources and external competences and the elevated professionality of been involved the inner and external figures.
The cost of a system is extremely variable, it depends on various factors which the dimension of the society, the number of customers, the number of modules acquires and moreover the implementazione costs to you.
From market analysis us has become account that the price of the software begins them can oscillate between 8.000 and 25.000 to customer of which 70-80 % it is constituted from the Business same Process of reingegnerizzazione.
As it can be very understood although they is poured and adaptable to whichever situation and whichever type of company, the elevated cost of purchase preclude the possibility of adoption of system ERP to all those small companies and average dimension, usually to familiar character or however constituted from a limited number of associates.
These in fact also having a structure small, thanks to their dimension, still turn out however to have of large inefficiencies due just to one bad management of the information.
Such software allows in fact to a control and one management of the information in real times and fast: all the information in fact are brought back in system, the operator therefore will not have need neither to record neither to control documents in affixed binders to you, since the documents will be scanned and inserted in appropriate folders, while they give to you will be brought back in particular masks.
With such systems in fact the companies could head in fact to obtain the certification of company paperless.
For how much it concerns the speech of the certifications, the companies supported from such supplying systems could not run also the risk not to be considered characterized from the own companies customers; above all to the days ours in which all the suppliers it codifies you of the greatest and important companies must have a certification that the quality demonstrates and effectiveness of the business management.

1.6.4. The limits of systems ERP.

The found greater limits in such systems ERP are sure the high operating costs and the not but easy one, like instead was believed, breaking in or eventual cancellation of gives to you.
Such systems have in fact the weakness not to eventually be able to cancel a data not more necessary one to the management of the company, because legacy to an other profit, since in this way would come lost both.
Therefore very many company stretches, in order not to lose they give to you and eventual passages useful to hold all give to you collected in the course of the life in system.
In theory, the availability of a great mass of information would have to constitute an advantage, but often therefore it is not: in fact it is more and more difficult to distinguish in means to give you relati to every minimum aspect to you of the operativity of the enterprise, those that interest the manager in order to take one important decision at the just moment.
Not to be able as already over pointed out to cancel they give to you brought back in system has carried many companies to continue to insert always new give to you in system, without to become account that was overloading a lot that a day such systems informed are burst to you and the companies have been found from a day to the other have been found to having to change the own systems of management.

1.6.5. Influence of systems ERP on supplyings.

In the previous pages they have been brought back notes generates them on systems ERP, putting in evidence positive sides you and the benefits that have carried in the corporate structure.
Through such support it has been able to obtain an effective one and efficient management of the information is to the inside, that is between unit and unit, than with the outside that is with all the subjects of the productive row, supplying and customers.
Such systems have allowed one strongly rationalization of times of job, then allow a fast passage between all the subjects, in fact the information come passages in real time second the effective requirements of the company.
The company in fact, through such systems directly, once received the order from part of just the customer, transmits the own requirementses of material the just supplying one.
If we wanted to focus our attention on a real example, we could consider concessionary one, than once received the order from part of the customer, thanks to such systems communicate the information to the manufacturer, than in its turn it sendes its demand automatically to its various suppliers.
That is it will demand the supplier To, 5 wheels, to the B supplier 2 liters of varnish, to supplier C flying.
Such demands are regulated from agreements squared, that is from agreements taken previously between enterprise head and all the others.
Such agreements establish all the contract conditions, therefore the parts do not have need of dealing of time in time.
Such system could therefore turn out perfect, but unfortunately they can be introduced of the not previewed requirements of supplying, that they are taken place very rarely and not with continuity in the time.
Such supplyings are necessary for the maintenance of business infrastructures and can be taken place anytime, then the breach of a machinery unfortunately are not never expectable.
Therefore the companies in order to resolve such disadvantages are forced to try new suppliers, then such pieces are not acquire to you habitually, to dealing with they prices times of delivery in order then to codify them.
Such activity involves but excessive dispendio of time and a money.
Such coding in fact, second the studies carries out from important companies to you which Unitec, Lufthansa.., the contracts make to pile the costs to an equal figure to 1200 euro moreover this necessity of dealing of time the time ago to slip by far the terms of delivery, when instead for such material the timeliness is of obligation then you can be also problems of lines and firm productions.
An alternative to such bureaucracy would be to be able to emit orders without to pass for the system, the so-called the orders maverick.
Such orders can give the illusion of fasting the bureaucracy completely, jumping it, but unfortunately that door to only lose the complete control on the management of the orders. Such orders come call to you.
Because is orders to “unpleasant affair” of which of it only who knows the existence has emitted it, because in system does not turn out nothing.

1.7. Integration of the supplies.

The requirements of the companies as it has been able to understand are modifying: to the search of the better price, imprinted on relationships it trades bases them to you on the contractual force, let alone to the maintenance of possible an elevated number more than supplying alternated to you, to the aim of feeding the competition, the development of chains supplier-customer imprinted to relationships of comakership with a limited number of reliable suppliers on the strategic supplies and the remaining development of a relationship of outsourcing is replaced with an only one provider for supplyings.
To the tendency to take advantage of to the maximum the suppliers, not to accept ties of along term and carrying out purchases for single orders, always placing in competition, to every order, suppliers alternated to you, the informative development of network common and c.d. the open orders is replaced (contracts picture or contracts of supply), in the within of relationships of along term of comakership and outsourcing it orients you to the obtaining of economies on along period.
Online with the analyzed strategic approach, also the role of the dumb supplier radically.
Its main tasks do not consist more in trying than to obtain the price more low to every order, activating the competition between suppliers to the aim to optimize the budget anniversary: it will have, more coherently with the new managerial philosophies, to coordinate and to make to grow the suppliers integrating them in the business system and to optimize the purchases to costs totals on along term.
The duty of “buyer” stretches to become characterized and specialized very less than how much it is not currently.
The role will be, in fact, the much total one and vanished, spacing from the quality, to the technology, the management.
Tendentially it is a destined role to being covered from company pictures that relationship directly with their suppliers (like to the inside of the company, where buyers are not necessary in order to manage the relationships between the units).
The relationship supplier-customer is in fast and substantial evolution. The strategic developments in action in the industrial companies are in fact find on the relationship “vendor-vendee” with own the logical ispiration.
The tendency to reduce the number of the suppliers constitutes an evolution that can be interpreted various keys of reading second.
Before they, that it traces the delineated model, it consists in the necessity to entertain relationships trades them with minor a number of interlocutors, to the aim to establish with they relations it trades them more grips and to reduce the costs of transaction.
The second one, caused diffusing itself of the comakership, originates from the impossibility to make to coexist one such philosophy with the presence of numerous suppliers alternated to you.
The outsourcing of supplyings, position is placed in one alternative regarding the above-mentioned distinction between secondary primary and supplying suppliers.
In the comparisons of comakership it is placed, to the contrary, in one complementary position.
The outsourcing in issue clear distinction between strategic and not strategic suppliers is based in fact on one.
The relationships with first will have necessarily to be maintained from the customer in first person.
The concept of comakership very is suitable to this class of suppliers.
The relationships with the second ones, to the contrary, could completely be delegated to an only one provider, obtaining in such a way the result of being able to speak with an only ulterior “primary supplier”.
They drastically reduce therefore the number of the suppliers, but obviously it will not reduce neither the number of suppliers neither the quantitative one of assets deals to you, since such assets will be try to you and managed from the provide, allowing to the company of partnership with an only subject, that it will carry to one substantial reduction of the information to manage.
One of the possible solutions that the Unitec offers to its customers is that one of the integrated supply.
That an only one provider that it is replaced to the myriad of suppliers of class B and C, that better management will allow like illustrated in the following pages one than such supplies.

1.8. The integrated supply.

The supply represents an aspect a lot important of the business economic cycle.
Often it comes centered the attention nearly exclusively on the prices of the goods dulls to you with the suppliers, not considering, or underrating, the amount of resources of the enterprise that come “burnt” during a whichever process of supply and that they are many more than how much can be imagined.
Till now in fact attention is not particular mail, to the costs that gush making to move the entire bureaucratic machine. Every time, in fact, than a business agency it comes activated for a whichever reason, generate costs, in particolar way then if they are taken place of the interferences, which can also carry to make the same procedure more times.
Putting in relation these considerations with how much said on purpose of the number of agencies that are been involved in a supplying procedure, it would have to turn out obvious rather that, in order to correctly estimate the cost of the supply process, it is not possible to limit the own considerations to the single price that appears in the invoice sended from the supplier.
The total cost of the acquired product is composed from numerous voices and the price can be also much inferior regarding its amount.
In particular, that is worth for those products defined “not strategic” for an enterprise – in how much directly does not employ you in the relating activities Core business of the enterprise – but that to the same one they turn out indispensable, like as an example the reciprocations or some types of supplyes. In such case, in order to diminish cost of supply, rather than to head at price – for which the margin of eventual reductions appears indeed limited -, it convene to concentrate itself on the reduction of the other voices that of it compose the total cost: it is exactly what it happens with the integrated supply of supplyings.
Online of principle draft of a system that allows of join the many small demanded of supply of the enterprise customer towards a company that is taken care of integrated supply, which will take care of all the procedures and operations necessary in order to make to reach the goodses wished at the wished moment and with an only document, coming from from the given over company to the integrated supply.
From a part, therefore, the costs of every supply from n. are reduced to 1, from the other part allow to the company, offering the supply, to gain just the margin to “cost zero” for the customer.
With the integrated supply, the companies have the business processes insides a lot become simpler to you, avoid inner the procedural interferences and external, they can transform the fixed costs in variable proportion them to the requirements of the moment.
The integrated supply is been born in order to manage in particolar way supplyings considers you not strategic for the enterprise – assets of wrap B and C, low cost not strategic in how much their management from part of a provider introduces greater margins of saving.
Draft in kind of assets whose price is relatively casso but whose total cost of purchase particularly turns out elevated. This because the enterprise, for being able to acquire such assets predisposes and assets the same operating structures and of management that would activate for the purchase of assets of primary importance for the enterprise.
In short therefore the purchase of goodses of not strategic type, turns out expensive not a lot for the price, but above all because business resources in purchase activity come “wasted” for which there is a clean disproportion between the value of the acquired good and the cost of the put into effect procedures in order to obtain it.
Moreover be a matter itself usually of little pieces, the company could not put into effect economies of scale in order to reduce the costs.
Also the simple purchase of a bolt can cost from 10 and also until 100 and, depends exactly, from as it comes chosen, on as the estimates, from as it is ordered, from as are controlled happen the transport and from as come stored.
Through the integrated supply several the processes come therefore compact and the costs are reduced to favor of the efficiency.

1.9. Evolution of the relationship with the suppliers.

An evolution in the relationships with the suppliers is found in the last years: from a vision of the supplier meant like a “adversary pressure” with the main objective of the minimal possible price to a seen supplier as a “partner with which collaborating” in order to try the optimization of the total system “customer – supplying”.
This evolution has placed to the center of the attention the supplier, transforming it in an element base for the attainment of the competitive advantage and for this reason it is necessary to establish relationships of mutual confidence, to characterize the collaboration areas and to define contracts that can guarantee to both the maintenance of the competitiveness in the time.
The immediate consequences of this new vision are:

  • lessening of the total supplyes
  • greater exchange of information between customer and supplier
  • greater vicinity
  • process of “progressive certification” of the consequent supplier to a careful selection and a continuous monitoring of the performance parameters.

From the point of view of the tipology of the supply relationships, classes are gone shaping three “bands” of reference (), in function of the degree of development of the comakership18.
Premised that in a departure situation, the suppliers, place all in III the class, draft to decide itself with who of they to carry itself at first in class II and then in class I.
Obviously, in advance situations they exist always supplying in class III and II, and that is in function of the ability to supplying a company to influence just the park, is for considerations of opportunity (also economic) tied to an ABC analysis of just the park.

Notes 18: Strategy turned to the suppliers in which an improvement which had to the synergies of the connection is attempted.

1.9.1. “normal” supplier

The company customer characterizes on the market all the possible suppliers on the base of minimal qualitative detailed lists acceptable, that is characterized and then judges suitable for the supply, choosing those to you that can guarantee the inferior prices.
Suppliers manage 2-3 at the same time are for being able to have sources alternatives are for being able to put in competition on the price the various suppliers.
Moreover they do not communicate themselves give to you on the requirementses previewed for the future one of it much less gives guarantees to the supplier approximately the future supplies.
If it is only made and in order to exercise one sure psychological pressure.
Such supplies are guaranteed moreover like quality solo through the company of a contract with eventual penitentiaries; the possibility to only carry out statistical samplings or quite “free-pass” is risks assumed unilaterally from the company customer on the base of gives to you historical or of low critic of the member in game.
Finally, the supplier has been only estimated on its output and therefore risks connected to not the acquaintance exist of as it can guarantee in the time such performances.
How much is not known the processes of the supplier is to “risk” as far as guarantee of quality and ability to answer to the changes in the programs.
And it is for all these reasons that are necessary to tutelarsi through emergency supplyes on such materials.

1.9.2 “integrated” supplier.

The supplier, in this class, will not come put in competition to every necessity of purchase, the conditions of the relationship in fact annually comes reviews on the base of the outcomes of the purchase marketing: when an alternative supplier finds itself interesting does not release the substitution, but he is attempted to recover the integrated supplier helping it to catch up the level of the contender.
The price comes as an example garrisoned from mechanisms automatic us of oscillation (coupling the price to the oscillations of the cost of the raw materials and the job or referring to the average price of that market of supply).
The integrated supplier knows the scope of its supplies and therefore the functions that its products must carry out.
The objective is therefore the guarantee of certification underwrite once for all and of relative documents you that then of fact they constitute only does not cost and bureaucracy.
To forehead of the previous point the supplier assumes all the responsibilities on the consequences of eventual not the conformities of the supplied product.
Also the European Union promotes this principle with its inserted demands for “traceability” in the norm.
Practical one logical free-pass eliminating the controls in entrance with all the economic advantages in terms of supplyes and lead-times.
Eliminated the test necessity, if the context of the relationship is of type JIT, the supplies can approach the production units directly.
When spouse a supplier, it must be an active member of the strategies of the company customer.
The customer has all the interest that the supplier increases its abilities continuously.
More it is small and ago part of induced of the customer more the support will be than advising and managerial type.

1.9.3 Supplying “partner”.

The supplying presents in such class contribute to the putting to point of the business common.
An important consideration to make is that nearly always the greater part of the “members” of a plan of the company customer is based and contained technologies of the suppliers.
Well, when a planner designs a product, it succeeds in to predefine also the technologies that will have to use the supplier, demand of fact a member already defined.
To part the impossibility from part of these planners to know all the technologies of the suppliers, tasks which opportunities of cost or function they forgiveness when they are not involved the true acquaintance of such technologies.
To be involved the suppliers in the planning constitutes a competitive advantage sure: in our companies, but, this it represents a cultural evolution not easy to obtain.
it is clearly that this integration on the product can be come true single with a limited number of suppliers on which is proceeded to a careful analysis and appraisal.
it is necessary with regard to reaching to strategic agreements between the directions of the two parts.
The practiced and advised approach more is however that one to develop to planning abilities to “systems” to the inside of the company customer, remitting to the suppliers the development of the members.
it is one logical from “engineering society”.
All said how much for the planning of the products is worth also for all the aspects of the business that they join the companies, and therefore strategies, markets, arranges, resources.

1.10. Accounting for cost centers and analysis A.B.C.

To the day today particular attention is concentrated to the centers of analysis better known like centers than cost.
Until some time it makes in the industrial accountings, the costs directly were attributed to the products without to filter them to the imputation centers in which they had had origin.
I use of the centers, by now of great spread and use is particularly useful for the following reasons:

  • Corrected imputation of the costs, especially for those indirect ones, to the single products;
  • Greater control and responsabilization of the various business areas.
  • Availabilities of give to you in the decisional processes on the single operating units.

Such calculation comes executed in order to understand mainly which activities convene to carry out to the just inner one and which instead convene to entrust to thirds party.
Till now in fact all the costs came attributed to all the products.
With such system, instead for every product they come calculates the costs to you that effectively they come supported.
In order to calculate such cost they come taken in consideration the direct costs 11 and indirect costs 12 that subsequently come decomposed and only attributed to those products for whose production has been supported effectively those costs.
The decomposition of the cost happens through the method of the division proporziona them that it is based on the center concept; a indirect cost in fact cannot be attributed to the product that has supported it, and therefore it is attributed to its center of belongings.
The center constitutes a recognizable independent entity univoca and to the inside of corporate structure 13 . Every single product receives a quota cost reported to a center in proportion to the use that it has made of the center.
The usury of the center can be based on a any criterion of reference:

  • Number of worked hours.
  • Number of produced amounts.
  • Employed time machine.
  • Meters you squared of the premises.

To the aim to calculate the “true cost” attributable to a product, a diffused approach is the Activity Based Costing 14 . This finds a precise the following motivation in consideration: between the product and the consumption of sure resources not there is a direct tie.
Therefore it is not the product that generates the costs directly and it cannot be therefore the only object of calculation to which chargeing all the costs directly.
The product, in fact, for being obtained and being sold demands that they come carried out of the activities and they are these last ones that consume resources and generate the costs.
In this within the single activities are definable as that with of actions or elementary tasks that have for objective that one to distribute a service or to indirectly produce output tangible (semifinished or a member of a product) that it concurs, directly or, “to manifacture” the offer that the enterprise proposes its customers.
The analysis of the management for activity allows to understand better than what organizational units happen to the inside of the functions and the correspondents and to pick the ties between the functions and to manage the company as it arranges.
Wanting to define it is made logical that the A.B.C. second characterizes the introduction of a process of determination of the product cost, can be indicated following is made:

  • Definition of the activities and the relative one slowly of the accounts, with the indication of the centers of cost for activity 15
  • Attribution of the costs specifically and objective attributable to the various activities; draft therefore to determine the resources quantification absorbed from the various activities through of the pointers of employment of resources16 proceeding to one they.
  • Determination of the cost of the single activities for unit of determining of cost 17 , dividend the cost total of the activity for the total value attributed to the determining one of cost.
  • If it is thought necessary, it can also be proceeded to charge to cascade, through prechosen cost driver, the costs from the activities of support, than reputa possible not to charge itself directly to the product, to the activities of fabrication and sale. Even if such imputation is not from all the economists accepted.
  • Imputation of the costs totals of the single activities to the products, multiplying the cost for unit of cost driver for the value that the cost driver assumes with reference to the product calculation object.

This analysis comes by now carried out in all the companies with the scope to understand which activities is better to carry out inner and to carry ahead therefore one political of make and which instead is preferibile to entrust to thirds party.
Also supplyings can be subject to such analysis, there will be assets therefore that it convene to produce and assets that are better to acquire from subjects thirds party.
In this according to case integrated supply it becomes one of the opportunities that are shown to the companies in order not to take care themselves directly of that supply, but of having however good savings of cost.

Notes 11: Legacies to a product or one production store clerk, like as an example: the costs supported for the purchase, the costs of the working to the aim to obtain a finished product.
Notes 12: They derive instead from representation and commercialization, administration costs.
Notes 13: Every company is constituted therefore from more centers.
Notes 14: ABC Analysis.
Notes 15: Activity Cost Pool.
Notes 16: Resource driver: that they can be the hours man, the hours machine, the percentages of I use.
Notes 17: Cost Driver.

1.11. Suppliers Spot: Law of Pareto.

Every supplying company more possesses a park or little wide one, than in the previous paragraph they have been subdivided in “normal” suppliers, suppliers “integrated” and suppliers “partner”.
If we had of forehead a list of suppliers with which a company it collaborates we could observe a prevalence of suppliers calls “normal” who give hour to you in then we call suppliers SPOT: that is those suppliers to which the company one sporadically addresses for assets of reasonable value and not closely legacies to Core business.
In this understood it the attention is placed on the numerical relationship that integrated alloy supplying SPOT and suppliers – partner and of as the integrated supply can become part in such context.
When one is in presence of many elements, of which the necessity is had to estimate of the importance and to classify them based on their weight, the instrument to use is the diagram entitled to the economist Vilfredo Pareto, than in 1897 it demonstrated as in an Italian region only little persons possessed great part of the wealth of all the territory.
For analogy the same Pareto and successes philosophers and economists, declared that in any system (political, economic, social.) the important elements to you to the ends of the behavior of the system are effectively little and that all the others make number.
The principle is the same one of so-called “formulated law 80/20” from J.Juran in 1950, in which it indicated with 80 the “many” and 20 the “little” of the previous law of Pareto.


Figure 1,3 diagram of Pareto.

The diagram of Pareto is the combination of a bar chart and of a curve that allows to estimate to eye blow which is the important elements and of how much they record.
When the curve flatten the elements are themselves little important, when increases we find ourselves of forehead to important elements.
In economic field various examples are possible:

  • With 20% of the products of a multiproduced manifacturing company, 80% of the turnover are come true.
  • 20% of the members of a product, constitute 80% of its value.
  • 20% of the customers produce 80% of the turnover.

Management as a result of the this consideration understood that it was possible to apply same law also for the field acquires and of how much derived follows:

“20% of the suppliers, power of attorney to the enterprise 80% of the value of supplyings”,
Consequently we will have that 80% of the suppliers supply simple a 20% “.


Fig. 1.4: Graphical relationship supplying/purchases.

In the brought back diagram over, we can previously observe explained how much in the “law of Pareto”, in which it is explained as 20% of the total supplying very supply 80% of the total of how much come acquired.
In order to verify and to confirm such theory it usually comes carried out an analysis intercrossed between the Nr. of suppliers and the turnover and an other between the material code and the turnover.
We will be able to define therefore this percentage of assets, like head physicians for the company and to catalogue them like strategic assets, for which the enterprise it has interest to manage directly.
The other 20% of assets is supplied the highest number of suppliers, very 80% and draft of those assets to low cost and that they are considers you not strategic.
To manage therefore nourished formation of suppliers for the enterprise is translate in large loss of forces and a money.
From said how much one deduces that to the enterprise it convene to concentrate all the resources available on the first group of assets and to entrust the purchase of according to group of assets to companies specialized in integrated supply.
Since it will be just this last one to contact the various suppliers, eventually to try some also of new, and to deliver to the various material to the company petitioner, with a consequent lessening of the costs like will come more ahead explained in the pages.

1.12. Analysis of the pocketbook acquires.

The political of purchase, tending in a generalized manner to more and more tightened integration with the market of the supply, imply deep changes in the management of the relationships and the systems of management and economic control of the supplies.
The purchase political will have therefore to be differentiated based on the historical moment lived from the company and to the inner contingencies (type of company, level of maturity of the purchases.) and external (competition, characteristics of the market of the supply.) variable they in the time and strongly employee from the competitive position of the company.
It is not therefore possible to define behavior rules and to fix valid political of purchase in a generalized manner but, in the picture of common ispiration principles, is possible to define of the modalities of analysis of the pocketbook purchases that supply the bases for the construction of a personalized system of supplying management of the park.
The system is articulated in three main elements:

  • Subdivision of the pocketbook in goods classes.
  • Analysis importance – reperire.
  • Location of the political for class.

1.12.1 Subdivision of the pocketbook in goods classes.

TAll the products and services acquire would have to be combine to you to you in goods classes, defined like with of products and services that for their similar in terms of:

  • Realized technologies
  • Raw materials common ones
  • Constructive cycles

They can be considered as with homogenous of purchase demanded to potentially interchanging suppliers and every class it follows common trend evolutionary and it allows to define common logical of management.
The class depends from as the company decides to acquire the product and from as the market of the supply introduces the customer.

1.12.2 Analysis importance – reperire.

In order to characterize the index of critic of a goods class in simple way it is necessary to analyze it two determining ones according to: the relative importance on the turnover of purchase and its reperire on the market.

  • The importance is substantially one determining economic and how much must be estimated the volume of a goods class affects the turnover of purchase. In first approximation can be considered to high importance the classes that invoice a greater quota medium – equal of the 2-5% of the total purchases. In cases of purchases many dispersing on numerous goods classes can be considered “high” also a class that arrives to 1%. After all the appraisal low-high importance is relative and therefore valued case for case.
  • With the term “reperibilità” is wanted to be indicated the facility with which a product it can be found on the market. Reperire of a class therefore is always determined from the numerosity of the famous suppliers and qualifies to you to supply.

Beyond determining if a class has high or low reperire it is extremely interesting to estimate the causes of the eventual lowland reperire, for being able to address eventually sets in action corrective.
The main causes can be: market ties, that is oligopolies and monopolies, ties deriving from precise business choices, political ties etc.
A synthetic and practical way in order to represent the pocketbook graphically acquires of a company, therefore like emerged from the analysis importance – reperire, is obtained inserting the goods classes in a matrix to two ways in which the columns they represent the reperire (high – low) and the lines the importance (high – low).
Such table, brought back in Fig. 1,5 comes commonly called “matrix of Kraljic” from the name of who it for first has used like marketing instrument.
it is necessary but to specify that the reperire and the importance can be modified in the time in function of the changes of scene of market and/or inner changes to the company.


Figure. 1.5. Matrix of Kraljic

On the base of these variable ones four article classes can be characterized:

  • A – Strategic articles: rare materials and of great value, are the materials more critic why the more important to us for the company and situate to you in highly risk markets.
  • B – Articles lever: draft of important material for the company, but places to you in little risk markets.
  • C – Articles not critic to us: it downstairs characterizes impact to you on the company and places to you in stable markets of supply.
  • D – Articles subject to throttlings: articles with a business impact much bottom, but with supplies to risk.

1.12.3 Location of the political for class.

In the brought back table under the peculiar characteristics of the single quadrants can be observed.


Fig. 1.6 Matrix of Kraljic Importance – reperire.

Between the four quadrants that one to which the integrated supply it is addressed is that one distinguished from letter C: low importance – high reperire.

Quadrant c: low importance – high reperire.

This is the quadrant of the purchases not critic to us.
The contractual horizon is usually of short-medium term and the acquaintance of the suppliers is normally deriving from the history and/or from she catalogues more than from the directed appraisal, normally not carried out.
The main objective is to guarantee an feeding chain and is for that there is a precise control of the times of supply in order to avoid stock breaches.
Draft usually of pieces from the modest value that the companies, in order to catch up an efficiency works them, has decided to entrust to a limited number of provider that supplyngs all the materials, even if of various Marches.

1.13 Motivations to the base of the integrated supply.

Sure the more important between the reasons of tactical character that they induce to resort to the integrated supply is tied to the necessity to reduce or at least to hold under control the increase of the supplying costs.
Thanks to the economies of scale, than alone the single company could not carry ahead, and to other advantages connected with the specialization of the provider, the company will be able to obtain of the more convenient prices, without to have but consumed own resources.
Moreover, enterprises that they try to carry out all the functions in just, can incur in excessive expenses and unexpected of search, development and management of the numerous relationships with the suppliers and such expenses they will have necessarily to be transferred on the final customer under shape of price increases that render the products of the enterprise less attractive on the market.
From a recent surveying it turns out that very 75 % of the machinery adopt to you in the Italian companies are of German origin, in the case therefore of substitution of some part, the enterprise could resort to the integrated supply, because it does not possess to the just inner necessary resources in terms of specific professional abilities for dealing with foreign suppliers, and entrusting itself to a provider with experience with the foreign country will have of the advantages and no waste of money.
The staff assigned to the purchases will have therefore the possibility to concentrate itself on those purchases considers you strategic not worry of the others more.



The object of this understood it will be, the study of the operating costs of the processes of supply that is of those costs that a company must support in order to acquire the necessary material to its activity.
The costs are independent from the value of the good, that is are that it comes acquired a simple life that an entire machinery, the costs in order to move the entire bureaucratic machine will be the same ones.

2.1. Total cost of the goods.

For total cost the summary one of the logistic costs and those accessories agrees, of the costs of the structures, the management of the purchases and the price of the goods.
The logistic costs are those costs legacies to the coordination and the physical movement of persons and goodses, from the moment of the delivery to that one of their employment.
The costs accessories, are all those secondary costs to the purchase of the goods; insurance expenses, customs expenses, those of I pack some are an example.


Fig. 2.1: The composition of the total cost of an acquired good. [ Unitec GmbH, 2000 ]

In the total cost of a goods the costs of physical infrastructures must be considered also.
A voice particularly important is sure the held cost of a warehouse, where that is the stocks of the goodses happens.
Such cost obviously will be legacy to the number and to the particularitities of the assets it acquires to you.
It is obvious that such expense will vary to second of the type of company: a warehouse constructed for 3,000 stocks separated ones of motor witness, will demand characteristics and various dimensions from that one in which perishable alimentary games are conserved.
Finally of great importance it turns out the voice of the all and all that is operating costs of the supplies, the procedures the apt organizational structures to procure and managing supplyings of the necessary assets to the enterprise.
Expenses of the staff of every been involved unit, expenses of the communications and the costs of the systems informed to you re-enter you inner.
For price of the goods, one agrees, obviously, the value of purchase of the goods.

2.2 The management of the supplies: introduction.

The objective of the surveys carries out near the enterprise champion to you has been twofold.
It is intentional in the first place to comprise and to analyze to bottom inner organizational dynamics that comes put in motion in order to manage the supplies, putting some in evidence the flows informed to you and defining the time amount that normally turns out necessary in order to manage supplyings.
Subsequently they are intentional to quantify the obtainable hypothetical reductions of time for the same activities of the same units with the adoption of the instrument of the integrated supply.
The business agencies of the enterprise, been involved in the process of management of supplyings are reveal to you to be four: logistic unit, trades them that administrative and that one of the telephone exchange – secretariat.
Such aim has been taken in consideration only that type of supplies, strategic and not, for which every agency has to disposition a sure autonomy of chosen and budget without that there is some necessity to be involved the direction in order to obtain particular authorizations as an example.
The time and the procedures of the agencies of time in time analyze to you, have had to object not only the typical activities and the more common interferences (disorganization of the procedures, not respected delivery dates), but also that type of interferences that manifest cross-sectionally to the operating subjects in the enterprise, in how much tied to errors or problems connected to use of the job instruments (problems of PC, fax, errors of the staff).
It turns out brought back in this understood it to you, because of infinite the variable ones that they can differentiate an enterprise from an other, do not have the pretension of being consider you perfectly extension to the truth of all the enterprises, neither the made projections must be considered precise to the second, in how much the objective of such search is of being simply a testimony and an absolutely indicative demonstration, but realistic, of how much the integrated supply can record positively in the management of supplyings.

2.3. The management of the supplies: the surveys.

The surveys you execute yourself are relatively bases on supplies of type “standard to you” to the business activity, that is for which every agency has to disposition a sure autonomy of chosen and budget without that there is some necessity to be involved the direction in order to obtain detailed lists authorizations.
In order to delimit the field of action of such surveying, therefore they have not been included that type of supplies for which specific processes of approval from part of the direction are necessary, in how much exceeding the normal activity, relatively to the which every business agency can act with one sure autonomy.
In order to render the most possible surveying close to the business truth they have been taken in consideration is the true and own activities – those, that is that, in short, they represent the nucleus of the carried out activities -, than the interferences directly connected to the activity, than those “cross-sectional ones”, than are taken place, that is, independently from the carried out activity since tied to the organizational structure or the instruments through which work.
Table 2.2. brought back in the following page, comes brought back all the every day movements you to supplyings of raw materials, semifinished, finished products and exchanges again, that it represents the base on which they have been then calculates the medium times to you for unit. As it can easy be observed, the company champion days demands and receives approximately 10 offering of price from its suppliers, of which only 7 they will come then but changed in order.
This scostamento of values between the number of estimates and orders, derives from the necessity for the enterprise to verify and to skim best offered the obtainable ones.
The consideration that exsternalization the management of supplyings, entrusting it to a provider external, the values indicates to you in table would be reduced to 1, with the easy imaginable consequences turns out immediate on the direct costs and indirect and the efficiency of the enterprise that that would involve.


Tab 2.2: Every day medium Movimentazione in the cycle of supplyings.

In table 2.3 they have been instead found the medium frequencies and the type of means uses you from the enterprise in the supplying processes.
Of particular interest, it turns out the insufficient use of the Internet technologies for the communications with suppliers (email, fax automatic rifle).
It can be observed in fact that the company in order to send the own demands for offer has used the fax mainly manual, although is equipped of a system software for the management “paperless” of the enterprise.
This makes to think that perhaps the supply chain in which the enterprise in issue finds to operate, enough is not integrated commercially, for which it I use of systems software for the connections with the suppliers, sufficiently does not turn out developed.
To manage the passage of the information through traditional systems like the telephone, fax and the mail, turns out more expensive than how much it could be if technologies to the vanguard like Internet were used, since will have are one lessening of the direct costs, than faster and sure a passage of information, smaller interferences and paper material minor to manage.
A lot probably such instrument will come mainly used in the case in which the bill in parliament of giving to the email the same value of a registered letter, it will come approved of.


Tab. 2.3: The mass media use you in a medium every day cycle of supplies from the enterprise.

2.4. Survey of the times of management of a supplying process.

For the survey of the times, necessary in order to carry out a supplying process, it has been compiled from Unitec GmbH an appropriate module, in which such process it comes micro decomposed in many activity, than to the appearance could seem also banal little and account, but that instead in their complex they carry the process to catch up times a lot it elevates to you.
Such micro activities have been but grouped in seven large ones combines to you, that they after all represent the steps of such process.
The first group is composed from all those duties that have like final objective that one to emit one demanded of supplying towards the possible suppliers.
The location of the possible suppliers demands long times above all much if that one of which the company it needs is material that it has not never acquired before.
Specifycation in order will come dates in the following pages.
The second step groups instead all those necessary activities for the management of the demands of offer, that is shipment in times expresses of the demands and next prompt constant for having of the fast times of answer from part of the suppliers.
Poichè above all when draft of relative assets you to the maintenance of the systems, can to happen that there are firm lines and productions, and in order not to have therefore a shock of the production, turns out indispensable to have the demanded material in some day.
The third party step groups instead all the activities of management of the offered ones, from their collection to the next control of they give to you and consequent chosen of that it offers the material to the more competitive price.
The activities of the fourth group are carried out instead having like objective the shipment of the order the supplier, with eventual prompt of the order confirmation.
These four first step, are carried out mainly from the unit trade them or from the office it acquires and we could define them like the activities necessary to organize supplying.
The fifth passage instead represents just the management of the acquired material.
After all this series of document passages between a company and the other, the goods arrives in warehouse where it comes controlled from the assigned’s to the logistics confronting give to you brought back its documents that accompany it.
Subsequently they will communicate to the other agencies the arrival of the goods game and therefore there will be the insertion of give to you in system.
The process obviously will conclude with the reception of the invoice and the relative payment of the goods from part administrative unit.
The collected and brought back times in Tab. 2,4 are aliquot and calculate so as to finish to you with the beginning of the next operation.
In such measurement the possible interferences have been count also all that they can be verified; that is whichever event that goes to interfere with the linearity of a process, than ports of the delays and inefficiencies to the inside.

To demanded Emission of supplying.


Activity Time
1- Verification needs of supplying 5′
2- Access to the system for responsible communication of the agency. 5′
3- demanded Compilation. 4′ 30″
4- Verification and demanded approval. 5′ 25″
5- Send office acquires. 6′ 40″
5-a Going to the fax. 1′ 40″
5-b Write the number. 1′
5-c Logon and disconnection. 2′
5-d Attend confirmation. 1′
5-e Archives. 3′
6- Reception and appraisal of the demands. 10′
In case of new supplier:
7-a Search through the several sources 15′
7-b Code of the supplier. 8′
In case of supplier already in system:
7-c Approached the system: search article and possible supplier. 20′
8- Formalizzazione of the demand 4′
9- Prompt of the logistic unit to the office it acquires via mail. 2′ 40″
10 Prompt of the logistic unit to the office it acquires via fax. 5′
11 Prompt of the logistic unit to the office it acquires via telephone. 5′ 20″
Partial time 82′ 15″
Time Interferences: 30′
Time total for demanded emission: 118′ 15″


B- Management demanded of estimates.


Activity Time
12- Shipment demanded of offer the suppliers. 8′ 40″
12-a Going to the fax. 1′ 40″
12-b Write the number. 1′
12-c Logon and disconnection. 2′
12-d Attend confirmation. 1′
12-e Archives. 3′
13- Access to the system: demands “inevase”. 5′
14- Press list of the suppliers who have not still answered. 2′
15- 1* Prompt supplying in order to obtain the estimates via fax. 8′ 40″
15-a Going to the fax. 1′ 40″
15-b Writhe the number. 1′
15-c Logon and disconnection. 2′
15-d Attend confirmation. 1′
15-e Archives. 3′
16- 2 * Prompt in order to obtain the estimates via mail. 5′
17- 3 * Prompt in order to obtain the estimates for telephone. 6′
Partial time: 35′ 20″
Time Interferences: 16′
Time demanded total estimate management: 51′ 20″


Offered c Management.


Activity Time
18- Reception of the estimates. 10′
19- Access to the system. 5′
20- offered Analysis. 20′
21- Control correspondence of gives to you. 5′
22- Appraisal prices and terms of delivery. 5′
23- Contact with the suppliers in order to negotiate the received estimate 20′
24- Insertion gives offered to you in system. 5′
25- Verification correctness gives to you. 5′
26- Comparazione with the other offered ones 10′
27- Selection of the offer. 5′
28- Eventual ulterior clarifications with the supplier. 10′
29- Shipment offered for technical approval. 8′
30- technical Appraisal of the offer. 10′
31- Shipment technical approval to the office acquires. 8′
32- Reception technical approval. 2′
33- Recording of the offered ones 2′
Partial time 130′
Time Interferences: 30′
Time offered total management: 160′


D- Management orders.


Activity Time
34- Preparation of the order. 5′
35- Press of the order. 2′
36- Company of approval. 3′
37- Shipment via fax or mail of the order 8′
38- 1 * Prompt one to the suppliers for confirmation of order via fax. 8′
39- 2 * Prompt to the suppliers for confirmation of order via mail. 5′
40- 3 * Prompt to the suppliers for confirmation of order via telephone. 6′
40- Reception order confirmations 3′
41- Control confirmation of the order. 4′
42- Modernization gives to you in system. 5′
43- Recording of the order confirmations. 5′
Partial time: 54′
Time Interferences: 30′
Time total management orders 84′


And Control to the arrival of the goodses.


Activity Time
44- Going in warehouse 5′
45- Accept the package 6′
46- Stock and control. 7′
47- Time in order to take the Archives. 2′
48- Search orders. 5′
49- Comparazione of gives to you. 3′
50- Eventual clarifications with the office acquire 5′
51- Recording bubble. 5′
52- Recording documents. 5′
53- Access to the system. 3′
54- Recording gives you of the goodses. 5′
55- Recording of the order confirmations. 5′
Partial time: 56′
Time Interferences: 60′
Time total control to the arrival of the goodses: 116′


F- Reception of the invoice from the supplier.


Activity Time
56- Collection of the mail to the income. 5′
57- Shunting. 15′
58- Control gives to you in invoice with those brought back in system. 5′
59- Control gives to you in invoice with those brought back in the bubble. 7′
If they give to you they correspond:
60- Access to the system. 5′
61- Recording of gives you of the invoice. 6′
If they give to you they do not correspond:
62-a Telephone call to the supplier for clarifications. 7′
63- b Communication to the office acquires of the petitioner. 3′
64- eventual Recordings modifications. 4′
Partial time: 57′
Time Interferences: 30′
Time total reception of the invoice: 87′


G- Payment of the invoice.


Activity Time
65- Access to the system. 5′
66- Verification of the situation of the payments in expiration. 10′
67- Press of the list of the payments in expiration. 2′
68- Access to the system 5′
69- Preparation of the order of payment for the bank. 5′
70- Press order of payment 2′
71- Approval to the payment. 5′
72- Envelope and franking. 1′
73- Positioning in “mail in escape”. 2′
Partial time: 37′
Time Interferences: 20′
Time total reception of the invoice: 57′


Tab.2.4 Survey of the times of management of a supplying process.

In the following pages they will come explained the main activities that compose the process of supplying.

2.5. Emissions demanded of supplying.

A-1. Verification supplying necessity.
The necessity of supplying of the productive units, turns out from gives you of the system through which the enterprise is managed: in it in fact they are brought back is the optimal levels of supply that those effectively available ones is of the raw materials and the semifinished ones for the production, is of the goodses of type B and C (low cost not strategic 19 . Daily in fact they come carries out five verifications to you from the assigned’s to the logistic unit of the present levels of goods in warehouse.

A-2 and 3. Access to the system, compilation and shipment of the communication approximately the necessity to the responsible of the agency.
After to have carried out one of the five every day controls, if the warehouseman had to state that the amount of a material has caught up by now nearly the emergency supply, after to have verified also the amount that is brought back in system, it will send one communication to the competence agency.
The detailed demand will have obviously to be a lot, since the person of the office purchases that for last the demand will receive, not being a technician, will not have the competences for being able alone to elaborate such document in correct and precise way.
Therefore beyond to the amount, the warehouseman will have to indicate technical characteristics, indicating also all the codes in its possession.

To 4. Verification and demanded approval, I forward to the office acquires.
Above all if draft of a large enterprise of dimensions, the bureaucratic procedure allonge, like in the case from we considered.
As the warehouseman can itself be observed from the table in fact directly does not send its demand to the office acquires, but the demands come made join in the specialistic agency for that material.
Will be therefore one for the material electrical workers for those mechanics and therefore to second of the nature of the good, the warehouseman will send its demand to a various agency.
Such agency therefore after to have controlled such demand it sendes it to the office acquires, than in its turn it will turn the competent supplier.

A-5. Reception and appraisal of the demands.
All the demands for supplying come therefore sended to the assigned of the unit trade them.
It could seem that such persons carry out a pure executory secondary job, that is to send simply the already ready demands to the suppliers.
Such unit has instead one function key: the assigned have in fact the task to connect and to manage in the time the relationships that is trades them in the productive row to mount with the suppliers and to they with the customers goes.
In short she can be defined like the center of promotion and management of the transactions, let alone the interface of the enterprise in the relations that are established with external subjects.
Just for the reasons as soon as cited, the unit trades them she always finds to the center of the exchanges of information with all the other units.
After to have received such demands, the assigned control they give to you in brought back they and verify if there is an adapted cover of budget.
Like whichever company, also the company champion needs of an immense range of material, comes searches articles to you in the archives ERP.
During this control in system the operator will understand if draft of material already previously acquired or if is before the time that such necessity verification:

  • Once understood that draft of a purchase already carried out previously and characterized type and amount of goods to provision, they come prepared the demands for estimate for those suppliers, than in the supplies passages they have offered to the material with one good quality to us to a good price.
  • In the case in which instead it turned out that never it has not been previously acquired or it has even been agreed a supplying widening of the park, even if such case turns out but to be much rare since such search would demand ulterior time, is proceeded exactly to the search of new sources of supplying. Such search happens mostly on catalogue and lately also using Internet. In this phase they come taken the first contacts in which it is begun to speak about the terms of payment, terms of delivery in the case of an order. As it can easy be understood to codify a new supplier in just the pocketbook, time dispersion involves one strongly and a lengthening of the times of delivery.

A-8. Formalize of the demand for offer.
After to have therefore searched the supplier and the article in system, the demand comes printed publication and signed from the persons of competence for that material after which the demand for estimate comes sended to all the suitable suppliers for that type of supply.
In order to carry out the activities the assigned’s have need at least 08h 20′ 40 “to the week in order to elaborate and to send, in average, 50 demands for estimate to week 20 .

To 9. Prompt of the logistic unit to the office he acquires.
In the case in which the supplyes in warehouse they continue to come down and the office he acquires has still not made to know null with respect to the agency preplace, the assigned to the warehouse will emit a communication of prompt in the comparisons of the trade commission them.
First the prompt one will come made via mail, subsequently via fax and if some day has not been still obtained an answer will be sped up by telephone.

Notes 19: Es. paper and printing cartridges of ink for, reciprocations several
Notes 20: That is approximately 10 minuteren for ones

2.5.1. Found interferences in the emissions of demand for supplying: 1ª phase.

Draft of banal and common problems, to which not from excessive weight, but that they sure provoke to an elevated dispersion of time and resources.
As far as the shipment of fax usually the such activities it is carried out through the fax manual, than unfortunately ago to lose much time to the staff, since can happen that the fax of who it must receive is occupied or that lacks the paper and must put it or there are problems of net and therefore via.
You they can also be problems legacies to momentary overloads of the system that determine slow down in approaching the wished pages.
Understood when more operating they are have using of in the same moment and like it can be imagined, draft of a problem that regards all the units indifferently; obviously the unit trades them, using it mainly in the phase of management of the supplies, from the surveys carries out to you, turns out suffer more, as an example, of the logistic unit.
Beside the interferences tied to I use of the job instruments, others exist some that can rise anytime and that they are tied to errors of the staff.
It can happen in fact that the assigned to the warehouse in introducing the codes gives in system mistakes to you obligating it to proceed to the insertion of one new series of codes or name to you.
Moreover they have been added approximately 10 minuteren to the day like employed time in order river-to previously already arrange the necks in warehouse in the case in which ulterior servant space for one new delivery, and becomes therefore a rearrangement of the disposition of the necks necessary.

2.6. Management demanded of estimates.

B-12. Shipment demanded of offer the suppliers.
The demand after to have been prepared and signed from who of competence, it comes sended via fax to the suppliers who have been judges to you suitable.
Also in this phase they can be taken place of the delays which had to I use of the fax, legacies always to taking the line, the wait of attended successive logon and of confirmation of the reception.

B-15. Prompt suppliers in order to obtain the estimates.
To the aim to render the supplying process more the possible express, it is necessary to have of the times of answer from part of the suppliers, much short.
For this reason, once sended the demands for estimate, if answer has not been still obtained, after a determined period of time, he begins himself to speed up the suppliers to send it.
It has been calculated that that involves a spend of time, for the unit trades them, equal to approximately three hours and means to the week.
Such prompt he happens before for mail then for fax and finally if he still does not have himself obtained answer the supplier contacts itself directly.

2.6.1. Found interferences in the demanded management of estimate: 2ª phase.

Also for this phase the main problems are legacies to use of the fax, since having to wait for every turns some minute in order to assess that the gone shipment to good aim is made to slow down the activities since such instrument is characterized from the fact to send documents slowly and with many difficulties.

2.7. Management of the offered ones.

D -18, Reception of the estimates.
Once receipts the estimates wish to you, these come record – so as to hold modernized the archives to you of they give to you – and confront to you are with the previous estimates that with all the estimates of the other concurrent suppliers.
This always does not succeed for all articles; generally for the products already it acquires other times to you is entrusted to us to the supplying usuals, less than negative mutations in the purchase conditions are not noticed – in the verifications with previous estimates -, the that case address new suppliers to us, that they can offer better conditions.
The result is that to forehead of approximately 10 every day estimates, approximately 7 is the orders effectively demands.
This type of operations needs approximately 04h 36′ 05 “weeklies magazine.

D-23. Contact with the suppliers in order to negotiate the received estimate.
A lot often is tried to improve of the conditions interacting directly with the supplier.
Draft for the greater part to be attempted to obtain or ulterior reductions in price, or to anticipate the date of the delivery and generally the conversations happen through the telephone.
Be a matter itself of negotiations that happen rather frequently – for 10 estimates receipts, in 6 cases the supplier contacts itself -, the time that personal you dedication every week therefore is elevated: very 3 hours and 9 minuteren.

D-27. Selection of the offer.
After the recording and to have taken contact with the suppliers in order to obtain better terms of sale, the various estimates come compare to you between they and will come chosen which to parity of quality and times of delivery have a smaller cost.

D-30. Technical appraisal of the offer and shipment approval.
The office acquires obviously will have been able to estimate the offer only from the economic point of view, for which the received offer it comes sended in copy to the technical office, to the aim to estimate if the offered product possesses the same technical characteristics of the demanded material.
It could succeed but that the sun information brought back in table is not sufficient to determine that for which the technician it will ask or directly to the supplier or passing for the office it acquires of the cards or give to you technical for being able to be sure of the material that they are acquiring.

2.7.1.Found interferences in the management of the offered ones: 3ª phase.

It can happened that between the numerous reached estimates, they figure some in which give you of the type or of the amount of goods or the delivery date they are wrong.
In these cases they come immediately contacts you the suppliers to the aim to correct the emerged errors.
In the greater part of the cases draft of banal errors that, not involving meant changes to you of the terms of proposed supply, is sufficient to directly replace the wrong information in the system, without that there is necessity of the shipment of a new estimate.
More very rarely draft than errors that instead of it change the ends.
In this case it comes express demanded the elaboration and the shipment of a new estimate.
The time found medium weekly magazine for these operations is of 22 minuteren approximately.

2.8. Management of the orders.

D-34. Preparation of the orders.
The preparation of the orders always happens through inner the computer science system and after to have been signed from the director of the such purchases documents they come it generally sendes you to the supplier with the fax.
This phase needs of 05h 27′ 15″ weeklies magazine moreover such documents will have then also to be archives.

D-38. Prompt to the suppliers for order confirmation.
For being able to proceed with emergency and above all for having the certainty that the times of delivery will come it respects to you from the suppliers, is needed of the order confirmation that usually is late to arrive.

D-40. Reception order confirmations.
The reception and the recording in system of the confirmations that the orders have been accepted, need nearly an hour weekly.
The greater part of the suppliers sendes these documents via regular mail, for which it can happen quite subsequently that they arrive little before the arrival of the goods or.
The importance of the order confirmations is in the possibility to verify that they give you relative you to the tidy goods are corrected, however, arrives you to this point of the supply process, very rarely is errors or incomprehension of risen, for which the importance of the document it remains limited to the single value of legal test.
The means mail are used wide them from the suppliers for the shipment of the order confirmations, although it is not means express in order to make circular the information.

D-43. Recording of the order confirmations.
Once recorded from the unit trades them in system, the order confirmations come given back to the unit telephone exchange-secretariat that is taken care of their recording.
The time necessary weekly magazine is of 31′ 30 “to the week.

2.8.1. Found interferences in the management of the orders: 4ª phase.

Since understood a lot often that the times promises in the confirmation of order then at the moment of the delivery do not come it respects to you, it is necessary to put in action precautionary measures in order to hold under control the deliveries and to prevent therefore useless and inefficient delays.
Once to the day it comes received in fact from the unit trades them a containing list the name ones you of the suppliers who are in delivery delay and they give you of the games of reference goodses.
Such list comes controlled through the crossing of gives to you in possession of the logistic unit, if necessary, dawned and given back to the unit they trades.
To the aim to maintain the give-base modernized, every day they come carried out 4 controls on the state of delivery of the suppliers, so as to be able to prevent eventual delays or errors.
These operations demand a total of 01h 24′ 25 “weekly magazine.
Between the interferences that the logistic unit is found to face, the prompt facts to the suppliers for deliveries that happen in delay, demand always much time.
These come made directly from the logistic unit are in order not to increase the size of job of the unit trade them, are because this agency possesses however the competences and give to you for being able to operate.
For first the prompt one, usually, the used means more are the fax.
To leave from according to prompt, however, it is preferred to use the telephone, in how much it allows to speak directly with the interested person and to obtain therefore you find more expresses.
It could be thought that such activity is carried out of shaves but unfortunately are not, medium in fact 2 deliveries on 7 are in delay 14 and of these, the half demands ulterior speeds up and explanations until to a third degree of prompt.
The motivations of the delays that have been revealed more frequent have been:

  • Errors of appraisal of the suppliers on the availability or the ability to produce to pieces demands during estimate.
  • Errors in transmitting the conditions of supply, such for carrying the supplier the enterprise to the block and the partial total or of the operation.
  • Error and interference inner of supplier or of carrier (as an example error of the staff in the re-transmit the give you of the order, mistake the delivery date delivery).
  • Errors and interferences in the relationship supplier-carrier (difficulty in the transmission of give to you corrected, errors of interpretation in the dates, problems in the contractual agreements).
  • Error of the carrier in the delivery because in possession of they give to you wrong.

Notes 14: In value percentage 28,56%

2.9. Control to the arrival of the goodses.

E-46. Stock and control.
Such control is executed from the assigned’s of the logistic unit, which carry out of the delicate tasks much for the operation of the company.
The assigned of such unit have in fact the task to receive the goods, to control and to verify their correspondence with documents of transport and the order emitted from the unit at the same time trade them and to manage the movimentazione of warehouse and to cure the preparation of the goods in escape.
Such control is composed micro activity which going in warehouse, accepting the package, stock to control it, to sign the transport document and to return in place of job.
Once to its place the assigned must search the order contained in one of the many binders and confront the bubble, with the order and gives to you brought back in system.

E-49. Comparazione of gives to you.
The transport bubble that accompanies the goods, in fact after is controlled comes inserted in the system business software, so that any operator has the opportunity of vision and working to us over.
This will only come however recording in an appropriate binder but for fine fiscal, since all will be able to find it in system.
Also here, as for all the activities dealt subsequently, have been calculated a 5% like “dispersed time”, than it is gone to add to the times finds you to the aim to maintain the more adherent times to the truth of the mean – along period.

2.9.1. Found interferences in the control of the goodses: 5ª phase.

It can succeed but that as a result of such control is of the differences.
The delivered goods is wrong in the amount or the type. In this case the logistic unit has the task to control gives to you and to inform the unit trades them and administrative, of way that the first one can proceed in the comparisons of the suppliers.
The ascertainment of the wrong delivery in the amount and the type of the goods, happens through the verification of gives contained you in the order, in the invoice and in the present bubble of delivery in the system and the times necessary in order to carry out these operations they are 12′ 53 “to the week.
The delivered goods, as a result of the control could also completely turn out damaged in part or.
Also in this case they come informs the assigned to you of the unit trades them – administrative, for being able to obtain the substitution of pieces.
The times necessary in order to carry out these operations are 12′ 10 “to the week.
In order to characterize the goods game exactly, the order, the supplier and the carrier of reference are rerun to the control of give to you in system.

2.10. Reception of the invoice from the supplier.

F-58. Control gives to you in invoice with those brought back in system.
The invoices usually come delivered from the carrier with to the goods, however the sent case in which the invoice does not lack it is differed and therefore for mail after the happened delivery of the goodses.
In a generalized manner the invoices for mail come taken and delivered to the administrative office directly, which supply to carry out one intercrossed verification: they come confronts in fact give to you to you in system with those of the invoice, of the estimates receipts and of the orders it sendes to you.
After such verification, the ends of the invoice are record to you in system, and the invoices delivered to the unit telephone exchange-secretariat for the recording.

2.10.1. Found interferences in the reception of the invoice from the supplier: 6ª phase.

The control of the arrived invoices, can carry to the discovery of gives to you wrong or lacking; it can happen in fact that they give you of the arrived goods do not correspond to those demands, or can be present abrasions that prevent the clear understanding of the codes.
In this case it is proceeded informing via system the unit trades them, which it proceeds demanding the supplier king-to send all give doubts to you, and, if the necessary one, to emit one new invoice.
Interferences of this time captain of I shave, with a frequency of approximately 2% regarding the invoices arrived; in any case, the medium time necessary in order to resolve the problem piles to 8 minuteren and means to the week.

2.11. Payment of the invoice.

G-63. Preparation order of payment for the bank.
Once to the day, the assigned of the administrative unit controls the situation of the payments in expiration and subsequently he prints such list for being able more easy to prepare and to send to the bank via mail, the documents and the ends for the payment of the suppliers, dawning give to you in system.
Draft of with of operations that come carried out every day, to the aim to verify the good outcome of the payments, generally account current.
Therefore it comes contacted the bank to which the enterprise is entrusted, and comes ascertained that they are not fates problems of some type.
If problems are not taken place, the necessary time for this type of control is of 57′ 45 “weeklies magazine.
After the recording in system such delivered unit to the telephone exchange and archives invoices come.

2.11.1. Found interferences in the payment of the invoices: phase 7ª

Also for the administrative unit interferences in the field of the activities connected with supplyings have been recorded.
it is possible that problems are taken place that prevent the execution of the payments to the suppliers; such situation can be found and fastly resolved through the controls that the administrative office predisposes every day, or can be the same bank to activate itself and to communicate the problem.
In the greater part of the times that that verification, the cause is for lead errors than transcription or of communication of the payment ends, that they can turn out mistakes to you or incomplete.
In any case, the situation is normally of simple situation, and demands little more than 17 minuteren to the week.
Other interferences can be verified as a result of I use it of the computer and system ERP, the errors of beating and the relative corrections and the problems of document search, than, in the specific case of the administration, are the invoices.
However such incidence on the carried out activities turns out low rather.
The problems and the slow down of the computer take place with one sure frequency also for the administration, occupying more than an hour to week; the errors of transcription or digit of give to you and information that come endured corrected, instead, demand approximately 47 minuteren to the week.
Much time in finding can moreover be lost invoices that they do not come immediately characterized; even if to the appearance what of insufficient importance can seem one, is enough some second ones for every dealt document in order to disperse precious minuteren for the activities of the office.
In the specific case, the dispersed time for this reason is in average of approximately 39 minuteren to the week.


3.1. Short history.

Unitec High Tech Industrieprodukte Vertriebs GmbH (Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung) is an enterprise to limited liability with center to Augsburg (Germany), than work in the field of the commerce of industrial members.
The company is been born to the end of years ‘ 80 on initiative of an Italian entrepreneur, Marino Vincenzo, than later on to important working experiences in the within of the field of the great systems of automation for the construction of motors vehicle to world-wide level, is decided to found Unitec in order to directly offer to qualified attendance in Germany to companies of the field metal worker and mechanic, electronic and of the distribution.
Mr. Marino thought in fact that the companies that they began to tighten in those new years relations trade them with enterprises situated in markets geographically distant could have met of the problems of operating and managerial character in the logistics and supplyings.
They would have run the risk that is to fragment too much the supplies and not to succeed therefore to coordinate supplyings also under a temporal point of view.
UNITEC, was placed on behalf therefore like risen of office a purchase-foreign country of such enterprises, that they turned out in fact to be devoid of specific acquaintances of the new market in which was gone to operate.
Beyond that of language type, one became in fact indispensable to arrange of all a series of managerial resources useful to implement an integration of the processes operated to you, logistic and trained (tasks to you to the several norms necessary customs lawyers and for the customs of the products is already only acquired to you).
UNITEC, realized therefore new services, to high added value, that they turned out of extreme importance for such companies and decreed the happened one of such company in the field of the services.
It was necessary consequently see again and to upgrade the organizational structure, in order to answer exactly to the new and various sollicitations to which was subordinate; it is in this phase that came particular mail attentiont the efficiency of the business processes.
As a result of that, Unitec acquire a greater competitiveness and began to define with more precision the supply services. From the experiences matured in fact, turned out obvious like, in a generalized manner, the business procedures contained enormous wastes hidden, in particolar way to care of the management of the supplies and to the relative activity of office, which, after all, never do not succeed to enter in regimen.
For this the supply integrated like method came proposed to the enterprises customers in order to catch up remarkable logistic advantages, managerial acts to you and.
An ulterior jump of quality came completed to half of the years ‘ 90 thanks to the complete informatizzation of the workflow business: today Unitec in fact has a system software ERP realized entire on the requirements of the enterprise, through which it succeeds to manage in real time the entire process of supplying, concurring to obtain it continues savings on the management of the information, not bounder to the paper material.
In the second half of years ‘ 90, Unitec abandoned linear the organizational outline of hierarchical type, not adapted to support the rhythms of increase of the transactions, for one structure to matrix, characterized from the division of the staff in job team. In this way fù possible to improve the degree of efficiency with which the activities come capacities end, increasing at the same time the motivation of the staff.
Hour, all that allows the enterprise to carry out the own activity in innovative way, through processes paperless and to operate in it ambles you to the vanguard of the market which it is the e-procurement.
The quality of the Unitec procedures today is recognized, from it certifys ISO 9000 and ISO to you 9001.
Unitec is moreover active member of the DIN (Deutsche Institut Normung), organism that operates to world-wide level for the definition of the emergency norms generates them in relation to the construction and maintenance of the production systems and to the inside of which UNITEC exercises a decisional power, through the formulation of just the ballot.
This guarantees therefore the quality of the products that Unitec supplies the own customers.
The choice to localize the company just in such geographic area has not been accidental.
To the beginning of years ‘ 80, in fact a high concentration of companies in the heart of the Germany was being taken place, operating mainly in the automotive field (Mercedes, BMW, Porsche, Audios, Volkswagen, Grob, KuKa, MAN, Siemens..), which specialized in the production of members and products to high technological content, relatively to which the European enterprises particularly were interested in terms of supply.


Figure n. 4.1 – geographic Localization of UNITEC GmbH (source

Today it is an international company that it represents, probably, the first example of outsourcer that, for tipologia and extension of the services, it applies the principles completely more advances you of the terziarizzazione of the supply processes, let alone of the those managerial ones of the warehouse and the logistics.
In particular Unitec has been specialized in the services of supply integrated of the non-production goods, like as an example pieces of reciprocation for the systems of production of immense tipology of industries, from that automotive one, to that one of the press, from that one of the household-electric ones to that chemistry.
For such enterprises, Unitec a point of reference is introduced as to which making confidence for the development of relationships it trades them with foreign enterprises.
Unitec in fact has constituted one driven in net of such services logistic and trained to you innovated to concur with said enterprises to you to delegate, all or in part, the activities necessary to organize all the logistic and administrative flow of the sub-supply relationships.
Such activities in fact, not being of type Core, would have generated of the advanced costs of inner coordination regarding those of market, delegating instead to Unitec the same activities, the enterprises customers participated actively to a driven in net of exchanges trade them with foreign Countries to contained costs.
Between the more important customers Audios can be cited, Bmw, Porsche, Ford, Piaggio and Fiat (and the enterprises connected like the Iveco and Comau) for the automotive industry, Man Roland, Mondadori for the industry of blot some from press, Saint Pellegrino, Zanussi, Siemens, Whirpool for the industry of the household-electric ones, Michelin, ENICHEM, Goodyear, Procter &amP; Gamble for that chemistry.
Currently, the markets of UNITEC supplying, are not only expanded in European within, thanks also open of the Only Market that has favorite is the free circulation of the goodses that a reduction of risks connected to the exchange rates with the introduction of the Euro, but also in international within, where persist because some objective difficulties for the enterprises pertaining to the various Countries, above all because of the various spoken languages.
As we have seen, the new technologies software represent the modern frontiers to explore in order to increase the competitive ability; just for being able to study and to offer just to an instrument business Internet-based software for e-procurement and workflow (the software managerial) it personalizes to you on the requirements of the customers, is been born from some year Unitec Services & Web, whose center currently is situated to Sabaudia, in the Lazio.
Unitec S&W is operatingly and managerial independent regarding Unitec GmbH, however the relationship of interexchange and interconnection remains tightest.

3.2. The activity of Unitec.

The mission of Unitec GmbH can be outlined in the phrase that follows: “To transform the fixed costs in variable and reduce. To supply means for the reingegnerizzazione of the supplying procedures.
To support the business continuous improvement and the Quality Management. To generate from every cost a added value.
To render the customers free to dedicate itself totally and calmly to just Core Business ” 20 .
Such it objects to you come caught up “Reducing the number of suppliers, managing them and training them.
Integrating the supplies so that “a” delivery replaces hundred of arrivals, controls and operations to your warehouse.
And therefore invoicing “a” time to the month instead of more times.
Joining currencies, the terms and the number of the payments to the suppliers.
All these thanks to persons prepared and the computer science technology, interconnecting in fact our customers with junior clerks to you Internet (NetSourcing) and available 24 hours on the 24 in all languages and from whichever part of world ” 21 . That reassumes the concepts already illustrates you that they are to the base of the outsourcing of supplyings and the e-procurement.
The development of the concept of outsourcing for Unitec, has clearly of the different tipology of coming from demands from the customers, whose diversities go above all searched in the contexts and the terms of competition with which they must be confronted.
Just in order to try to answer in the preciser and directed way how much possible one to the demanded specificities, Unitec has developed the idea to personalize the own services, in the first place distinguishing the outsourcing in “procedural” and “administrative”, and then structuring them through NetSourcing, the computer science instrument of Unitec.

Notes 20: Ciapetti C.L., article published on
Notes 21: R. Morelli, article published on

3.3. The outsourcing “procedural”.

The outsourcing “procedural”, it has like objective primary that one to render the operating costs of the supplies most flexible possible.
From they give to you in possession of Unitec, turns out that one normal procedure of supplying not less demands than 50/60 concatenate operations, that they can succeed in to be involved until also to a ten of business agencies of several levels, from the direction to the productive units, for a number of persons who medium go around themselves between the ten and twenty units.
As already previously pointed out these procedures they thus turn out to be expensive – in terms of business resources – why uses to you is for assets that contribute in directed way to the produced added value from the enterprise, it is for assets that, but indispensable, are marginal regarding Core business – tasks as an example, to one supply of neon or light bulbs: in this case we speak about “non-production goods”.
The every outline of single procedure, and the appraisal of the been involved resources, renders endured the idea of how much expensive one is to provision.
Unitec, offers just the support in order to analyze such processes of supply, and to redesign the flows of the connected activities.
The outsourcing procedural it is after all an application of the outsourcing of base, characterized, exactly, from the esternalizzazione of a not strategic activity, whose control remains but inner to the enterprise.
The effect of greater added value, like saying, derives in great part from the flessibilizzazione of the costs: the performances of Unitec are sources of costs for the enterprise when they are demanded and for more, are only easy monitorable in every moment.
To transfer the management of the supplies to Unitec, than of such activity has made the own specialization, means to resort to external resources in order to elevate the performances of those inner ones, the whose objective and final result, are that one to improve efficiency of the enterprise through the discouragement of wastes and the best one I use of the resources.

3.4. The outsourcing “administrative”

Leaving from the presupposed one that the number of the procedures of a supplying process increases in way proportion they number of orders that become necessary, Unitec propose themselves like outsourcer external, in a position to rationalizing and managing the processes legacies to the supplies, through the outsourcing administrative, that she corresponds to the extended type of outsourcing more.
The introduction of the instrument of the outsourcing administrative, is aimed specifically to reduce also the inner procedures of administration and control that these last ones, in fact, “waste” numerous and precious resources and means that could be employed in others ambles to you more pays and the recovery of efficiency of these business areas passes through their simplification.
Unitec, for the outsourcing administrative, but also for the outsourcing procedural, has developed one its easy introduced modular application in the existing corporate structures, shaped on the business requirements, that the attainment concurs of immediately turns out to you found, and for every module applied.
The modules predisposed from Unitec are three, and conceived for being it applies to you in sequence order.
With the application of the first module the management of the simple escapes of the demands for supplying is moved to Unitec without that the property of the goodses comes transferred; with according to module, to the service of escape of the demands for supplying, relative one to the management of the logistics and the administrative activities joins that, that it presupposes the transfer of the property of the goodses; the third application module, extends the outsourcing to the management of the warehouse and the data bank you of articles.
The activities transferable from are endured and it turns out to you are endured quantifiable.
Through the complete performance of the outsourcing administrative the inner activities of the administration and the control are reduced radically: the customer must only relazionarsi with Unitec communicating the amount and the type of goods wished with to the term of delivery and receiving the goods demanded with an only invoice and an only bubble of accompayment through an only periodic delivery (every day, weekly magazine, salary to second of the requirements), which will be able to obtain from provider the Unitec competitive unit prices much, because, this last one, coordinating with of the orders of all its customers towards the suppliers, will obtain selling prices many bottoms.

3.5. The integrated supply.

Unitec applies the foundations of the outsourcing administrative through the system of the “integrated supply”.
Online general draft of a system that allows of join the many small demanded of supply of the enterprise customer towards Unitec which takes care of all the procedures and all the operations necessary in order to make to reach the goodses wished at the wished moment and with an only document, to the customer.
From a part, therefore, the costs of every supply from n are reduced to 1e from the other allow Unitec to gain just the margin to “cost zero” for the customer.
In fact the obtained savings are clearly greater of the markups apply on the goods (see figure to you 3,2). it is obvious that greater it is the number of the processes that come managed with the integrated supply, greater will be the benefits deriving from the efficiency recovery. With such system, Unitec moreover allows to simplify the business processes insides, eliminate the inner and external procedural interferences, to transform the fixed costs in variable proportion them to the requirements of the moment.
The integrated supply of Unitec, is been born in order to manage in particolar way supplyings considers you not strategic for the enterprise, – assets of wrap B and C, low cost not strategic -, in how much their management from part of a provider introduces greater margins of saving.


Fig. 3.2: Comparison operating costs supplying with and without the Unitec support.

Draft in kind of assets whose price is relatively low, but whose total cost of purchase particularly turns out elevated.
This because the enterprise, for being able to acquire such assets, predisposes and assets operating structures and of management optimized and adapted instead for the purchase of goodses of strategic type for just Core business.
In short, therefore, the purchase of goodses of not strategic type, turns out expensive not a lot for the price, but above all because they come consumed business resources in purchase activity for which the enterprise is not specialized; that means that it is come to create a clean disproportion between the value of the acquired good, and the cost of the put into effect procedures in order to obtain it.
Moreover above all the great accustomed companies to carry ahead economies of scale, for such purchases cannot make it since draft of hundred of assets of various type.
Many inner companies think to resolve this inefficiency ahead carrying one political of insourcing trying that is to take part exclusively on inner the organizational structure, but the number of invoices in entrance from the suppliers cannot be rationalizes to you neither from the administration, neither from who emits the purchase orders, neither no other business agency.
Addressing to outsourcer that it proposes solutions aimed for the supply procedures is only possible “to compattare” all the activities, allowing to reduce hundred of invoices to one, and regulate the times of delivery.


Fig. 3.3: Before the adoption of the integrated supply.


Fig. 3.4: After the adoption of the integrated supply.

As the administration can be noticed in fact from figure 3.3 turns out to be overloaded of job, since it must take care of all the purchases of which it needs the company. With the integrated supply, as it can be noticed instead from the successive figure, 3.4 effective simplification of the procedures of the administration.
For the enterprise customer but they do not change the procedures of demand for supplies. Simply rather than to address to hundred of suppliers, it makes reference to only interlocutor: Unitec.
The demands for not strategic assets come sended to Unitec, than it elaborates, trying to them of the supplier to the inside of just the give-base.
If the demanded good turns out to be urgent, the material comes sent endured with a single shipment, if instead draft of material ordered with wide advance payment the Unitec, tries to offer also an integrated service of delivery.


Fig. 3.5: Temporal outline of the deliveries with Unitec. [ Unitec GmbH, 2000 ]

An other great advantage is represented from the possibility to execute a single payment, whose terms will come agree to you single with Unitec independently from the supply conditions set up from the single suppliers, since to such terms she is subordinate to Unitec and not the final customer.

3.6. Advantages correlate you to the integrated supply.

According to they give to you currently available, through the integrated supply is possible to estimate one reduction of the paper members around 90%.
In particular, an enterprise customer of Unitec in the first 16 months in which supplyings they have been managed through the integrated supply, has reduced the number of bubbles from 1321 to 85, with an equal reduction to the 93,56%, and the number of invoices from 1000 to 40, with an equal reduction to the 96,00%. Reassuming we can say that the direct costs cut to you regard:

  • The field acquires: thanks to the unification and to graduate them reduction of the demands and the orders, the prompt ones, of the translations, etc;
  • The administrative field: in consequence to being able to manage a single invoice that only more positions and more suppliers fine eventually to the carriers, and to thus carry out a single payment to a single supplier (the procurement-provider).
  • The logistic field: a single bubble of delivery, reduces and simplifies the acceptance of the goodses.
  • The recording: the reduction of the number of the transactions (your paper supports) involves an enormous decrease of the physical volume of the recordings and consequently it renders the access to documents simpler and precise.

Moreover ulterior optimizations are generated, indirectly,: it comes reduced the use of the telephone and of all the mass media it is inner to the company is towards the outside; they come optimizes the investments to you of the resources towards Core business; it improves the effectiveness of the organizational structure; they improve the logistic flows through a better synergy with the carriers that deliver the goods.
Of particular interest they are also turns out you to the management of the warehouse in the time.
The consequence of the esternalizzazione of supplyings positively on the indices of spin of the stock goods: being able to reperire the goods in instantaneous way, it is possible to reduce the amount of supplyes is of the strategic assets, that of the not strategic assets that they are present in warehouse for eventually being able to be used to taking place itself of not expectable situations (like unexpected peaks of production or breakdowns to the systems) and that in the time they can be revealed unusable in how much obsolete or deperite.
Such concept graphically is represented in the Fig. 3.6, 3,7 here of continuation brought back.


Fig. 3.6: Course of the amount of goods in the warehouse of an enterprise that uses the service of integrated supply.


Fig. 3.7: Course of the emission of the orders of supply integrated in the same period of time.

In Fig. 3.7 the course of the amount of goods held in warehouse is brought back, than like it can be observed as a result of the adoption of the supply integrated with passing of the years becomes more and more low, nearly to become null.
In Fig. 3,8 instead the course of the number of emissions of orders is indicated, than with passing they become more and more numerous, but the material amount becomes always greater.


Fig. 3.8: Relation between number of supplyes in the warehouse and amount of the orders of integrated supply.

n diagram 3.8, over brought back the accent comes place on the relation in the time that exists between the number of orders carries out with the integrated supply and the supplyes to you of warehouse; it is obvious that much more it is rerun to the integrated supply, the many more stock goodses stretch to diminish.
Naturally the service of integrated supply comes “personalized” from Unitec based on requirements of the own customers, as an example agreeing the frequency of the arrivals of the goods, or the frequencies and the modalities of payment, or still selecting the suppliers near which Unitec will be able to address.

3.7. Real example of integration of the supplies.

In brought back table 3.9 in the following pages, it comes introduced a real example of integration of the supplies in the carried out picture of the outsourcing Administrative from Unitec for a customer.
The customer has been able to very integrate in fact 20 coming from particular from 8 various suppliers in an only demand, than subsequently she comes from Unitec elaborated with successive selection of the suppliers who answer to the inserted requirements of the customer between the 3240 in just arrange software, eventually shunting more demanded – Anfragen – to various producers.
In the case he must himself be proceeded to the search of a particular supplier with which Unitec has not never dealt, they come uses you special programs of search and selection.
Received the offer of the asks suppliers (Angebot), Unitec proceeds with the appraisal of the same ones, selecting the best ones; on this base the offer is prepared to make the customer, supplying to apply a service margin.
To this point the customer can answer positively, accepting conditions or can contact Unitec for clarifications or ulterior demands, or still, refuse.
Once had the confirmation from part of the customer through the definitive order, Unitec sendes the own orders (Bestellungen) to the interested suppliers which supply to deliver demanded how much.
Before being made to send the enterprise-customer, the goods games, if draft of urgent orders is not come toghether near a warehouse near Monaco di Baviera – if they are composed from goods with advanced weight to the 50 Kg or if particularly volume, or sended directly near the Unitec center to Augsburg.
In both cases, every neck of which the games of goods delivered are made up, endures a series of takes care of controls to you.

1 Particular 1 Supplier 1 20 101,25 sett 1
2 Particular 2 Supplier 1 4 42,50 sett 2
3 Particular 3 Supplier 1 25 150,10 sett 2
4 Particular 4 Supplier 2 1 510,00 sett 3
5 Particular 5 Supplier 2 3 346,20 sett 1
6 Particular 6 Supplier 3 10 22,30 sett 5
7 Particular 7 Supplier 3 80 52,20 sett 1
8 Particular 8 Supplier 3 2 315,00 sett 2
9 Particular 9 Supplier 4 40 40,25 sett 3
10 Particular 10 Supplier 4 35 15,25 sett 2
11 Particular 11 Supplier 4 50 35,10 sett 3
12 Particular 12 Supplier 5 40 220,30 sett 2
13 Particular 13 Supplier 5 5 120,00 sett 7
14 Particular 14 Supplier 5 3 210,00 sett 3
15 Particular 15 Supplier 5 7 16,10 sett 2
16 Particular 16 Supplier 6 100 150,00 sett 4
17 Particular 17 Supplier 7 4 430,00 sett 5
18 Particular 18 Supplier 7 30 215,00 sett 3
19 Particular 19 Supplier 8 80 83,50 sett 2
20 Particular 20 Supplier 8 20 25,20 sett 7

Tab. 3.9: Real example of supply integrated of Unitec.

In particular it comes verified:
the correspondence between the goods effectively delivered and gives to you that they are brought back on the accompanying document and the invoice, every physical integrity of single neck, than articles and the amount of the delivered goods is effectively those demands to the suppliers.
A shipment of the goodses ordered from the customer happens in an only solution, to second of the agreements taken, in day, or in week or during the month.

3.8. IIt turns out you of the integrated supply.

Carrying out an integrated order the company customer has succeeded to group various particular in an only order, which instead of 20 offering, 20 deliveries, 20 invoices and relative bubbles will receive one simply copy for every document.
That to allowed therefore to reduce the transactions from 8 to 1, in terms percentages has one reduction of 87,5%.
It is understood, therefore, like the costs of the service lend from Unitec, can be you become lean yourself is from the obtainable direct savings – with the purchases of great amounts of products for various Unitec customers one makes sure from the supplying prices many competition to you – than from the improvements of efficiency.
Through the integrated orders therefore, beyond in how much already said, an enterprise is succeeded to reduce considerable also the number of times in which normally addresses to the carriers, replacing small and attends supplies – with costs relatively it elevates to you – with goods amount, transported to prices proportionally more contents.
Also as far as the invoicings and the payments it must consider the agreements that come taken between Unitec and its customers; these can, in fact, be weeklies magazine, or salaries; in this last case the enterprise-customer will receive maximum 12 invoices to the year.
An important role in the outsourcing administrative is covered from the communication technologies that they allow to Unitec to improve the times of participation – generally answer from Unitec within 24 hours is possible to obtain one – and above all to offer one series of otherwise not possible services.



In this first one understood it, on the base of they give exposed, is attempted to you previously to estimate the consequences, in terms of operating time, that it would involve for the enterprise champion, tightening an agreement of supply integrated with Unitec GmbH, as far as supplyings of “non-production goods” and sporadic assets.
In spite of everything, they are finds but values to you of advanced total interferences to 40%, than therefore the activity of the company slows down.
As first consequence the enliven trades them every day from the enterprise they would change like exposed in table 4.1.


Tab. 4.1: Every day enliven of the enterprise if it adopted the system of integrated supply.

Draft of a radical change: all the enliven found to the week for every voice, are reduced to one. This verification, why the managerial, administrative procedures and of control of the relationships trade them towards the suppliers have been transferred to Unitec. The only subject with which the enterprise will have to interact for own supplyings of “non-production goods” becomes, therefore, Unitec GmbH.
In table 4,2 they come instead put in evidence the every day frequencies of I use of the mass media employs you for supplyings after the resource to the integrated supply.
Confronting such table with that one brought back in the understood one them previous, a high reduction of these can be noticed.
For how much it concerns the fax, it is handbook that automatic rifle, for the supply procedures does not come used: the shipment of the demands for supply and the orders and the reception of the Unitec offer happen hour via Internet.
The mail in arrival is relative only to a confirmation of coming from order from Unitec, but will not be more the enterprise to having to demand estimates to every supplier, but Unitec that will search the most competition to you, will estimate the received offered ones, composing an only offer that comes sended to the customer for the definitive approval.


Tab. 4.30: I use mass media after the agreement of supply integrated with Unitec.

The vlf of I use of the mass media, the reduction of the procedures, united to the exploitation of the Internet technologies, allows the enterprise, to limit the times remarkablly to dedicate to the management of the supplies.
Here of continuation they will come analyzes the same units to you whose involvement in the supply processes has been previously described, illustrating of the more important differences.

4.1. Emissions demanded of supplying.

The first micro activities of this first phase will not change since in order to establish the business requirementses of the productive units, they will have to be controlled turns out to you brought back in system through which the enterprise is managed.
Therefore as usual the warehouseman will compile and send the communication approximately the necessity to the responsible of the agency, than he will turn it to who of competence in the office acquires.
And in this phase here that the supply door of the advantages meant to you in the management of supplyings.
The main advantage in this phase is not to have to preoccuparsi of having to begin a search of a supplier for a new piece because the demands for material confluiranno all in and will be then Unitec to begin this search and this taken of contact with this new subject.

4.1.1. Possible found interferences in the emissions demanded of supplying: 1ª phase.

Also in this case the interferences that interest this first group of activity come drastically reduced; such phenomenon is from leading back above all to the contraction of the number of activities, which exposed the unit to possible errors, beyond that to the aid of technologies that allow to transmit the information in surer and fast way.
Naturally they can be verified of the disadvantages.
It can happen in fact that the demands sended to the provider turn out to be little clear for which this last one needs of a telephone contact in order to ask ulterior information in merit.
The frequency of these contacts can be estimated in 2 times to the week for a total of 14′ 52 “, however by far inferior to the same tipology of activity carried out normally that it demanded 3h 09 ‘ (-92%).

4.2. Management demanded of estimates.

Rather than to have every day to prepare and to send 10 demands for supply via fax, hour the operator will be able to approach the NetSourcing di Unitec in order to demand an only estimate.
Inserted and he sendes give you to you of the demanded goods, Unitec will take care itself to contact the suppliers.
The time employed weekly magazine is of 51′ 35 “, the time reduction is equal to 89%.
For how much it concerns the successes to you you speed up by now not will be more various suppliers to contact and next to which asking an offer since this Unitec thinks to us that nel.giro.di some day provvederà to the shipment of the estimate for all the materials that the company has demanded.
Such phase is therefore the much fastest one since the estimates to verify are only one.

4.2.1. Possible found interferences in the management demanded of estimates: 2ª phase.

The interferences diminish less in proportion than not the activities; the reason goes searched in the fact that this type of interferences, also coming curtailed remarkablly, does not come never completely eliminated, however the reference values are many bottoms.
In the first place more interferences tied to the use of the fax are not recorded; in the second place the necessity to use in order little hours the computer, ago to diminish the probability of taking place itself of rallentamenti of the system or problems of software (10′ 30 “, -75%).
It is the errors of the staff, united to the dispersions of time in the document search and archiviatori that are not found endured, endure they a decrease.

4.3. Management of the offered ones.

The company therefore will receive a single estimate, that it will come recorded and estimated.
Obviously the company will be able to contact Unitec for having clarifications on eventual terms of delivery and will be able to demand a reduction is of the times that of the price alluding to a reduction in price.
The price of the goods in fact comes recharged from Unitec, in order to cover its costs, of a rather variable amount.
Such margin comes compensated wide is from the reductions of price obtained thanks to the economies of scale on the which Unitec succeeds to make lever near the suppliers is, above all from the reductions of time and the greater efficiencies that the enterprise succeeds to obtain from the integrated supply.
This estimate obviously will follow the bureaucratic procedure before therefore with passage for the approval of the characteristics from part of the technicians.

4.3.1. Found interferences in the management of the offered ones: 3ª phase

Interferences tied to the computer or the fax can be always verified and are due or legacies to momentary overloads of the system that determine rallentamenti in approaching the wished pages.
Understood when more operating they are have using of in the same moment of shielded containing give to you particularly long and complex.
Like already over pointed out when it is had to disposition various offered it tries to improve of the conditions interacting directly with the supplier.
Draft for the greater part to be attempted to obtain or ulterior reductions in price, or to anticipate the date of the delivery.
Other times the supplier proposes produced alternated to you. Generally the conversations happen through the use of the telephone.
Be a matter itself of negotiations that happen rather frequently – for 10 estimates receipts, in 6 cases the supplier contacts itself -, the time who personal you dedication every week relatively is elevated and however it interferes with the normal business activity making to lose time to the staff.

4.4. Management of the orders.

After to have prepared a single order in spite of the positions they are many and above all of various suppliers between they, this comes sended via Web.
The weekly employed time is of 52′ 30 “, with a saving of time of 91%.
Thanks to the service of NetSourcing the attache’ will be able to monitoring and to analyze the relative movimentation to supplyings that of day in day come carries out to you and the time weekly magazine is of single 16′ 35 “.
The reception of the order confirmation always happens via regular mail, but being an only document, is assisted however to a lowering of the time, that he becomes equal to 30′ 25 “, with one reduction of the 51.5%.
The time that every week the staff of the enterprise employs in order to manage the relating operations supplyings after the introduction of the integrated supply of Unitec, becomes smaller.
That means that the time to disposition of the unit for the activities of attendance and management of the customers increases in considerable way, to all benefit of the quality of the offered service.

4.4.1. Possible found interferences in the management of the orders: 4ª phase.

In the case instead of received goodses lese, it is unfortunately a disadvantage that is bound to the transport, therefore not dismissable.
In any case, considering the type of relationship that is come to establish with Unitec, the times in order to place remedy to such situation would have to come down and to be equal to approximately 6′ 49 “weeklies magazine.

4.5. Control to the arrival of the goodses.

As a result of the adoption of the integrated supply, the duties carried out from the attache’s to the warehouse do not change.
That that instead modification is the frequency with which such activity they come carried out.
Verification moreover one substantial reduction of the interferences.
For how much it concerns the reception and control of the goods, the workflow operating it remains immutato.
The meaningful change that famous, is pointed out it frequency with which comes carried out the single operations; that drift directly from the fact that the 14 every day necks come delivered one single time to the day with to one single invoice and one single bubble of accompanyment.
This means that they come “compattati” the processes of reception of the goods, of the recording and recording of the accompanying document.
The time weekly magazine is reduced in fact to 1h 44′ 20 “with one clean reduction of 42,7%.

4.5.1. Possible found interferences in the control to the arrival of the goodses: 5ª phase.

The interferences that can be verified in this phase endure one drastic reduction: a control of the list of the suppliers in delivery delay not servants more, therefore like that one in order to verify if the arrived goodses are wrong, in how much draft of functions that have been delegated to Unitec.
At the same time the delivery delays are rarer (from 1 time to the day to 1 every time two weeks).
Making reference for the supplies only to Unitec, but them it upgrades them delay causes can be circumscribed to two: the delay of delivery which had to the suppliers of Unitec; the delay of delivery for errors of Unitec.
But both solvables in a hurry, in fact the necessary time is equal to 2′ 01 ” with one reduction of the 98.8%.
It remains however the danger that the goodses are damaged in the transport from Unitec to the enterprise; this problem is totally employee from the transport, for which not dismissable, the substitution procedures are resolved in fast way and therefore the time weekly magazine becomes 12′ 10 “.
In the case a damaging is taken place the substitution of the lese goodses happens without the preparation of the rendered letter of, having already informed Unitec and the time weekly magazine is reduced to 7′ 58 “.
The time demanded in facing with of the direct interferences comes down to single 22′ 09 “to the week – like brought back in table 4,3 -, with a saving nearly 93%.
The cross-sectional interferences, for their nature, cannot be of the all eliminated ones; however, they endure one clean reduction.
Pack-saddles to think next to the fact that all the problems deriving from the fax, are manual it or automatic rifle, are completely eliminate to you, being able to count on other mass media many more expresses; moreover, diminishing the activity connected to the management of the supplies, in proportion the errors that can be verified, or the difficulties diminish that can be had in the search of documents and archiviatori.

4.6. Reception of the invoice from the supplier.

Even if in smaller measure regarding the others, however also in this phase I use it of the integrated supply has carried its positive effects you; this above all in consideration of the fact that the document size every day deals you for the supplies reduces considerable.
The processes of reception and recording of the invoices, are simplified appreciably, thanks to the diminished amount of information to deal.
The time weekly magazine esteem can be come down from 9h 17′ 20 “to 1h 30′ 05” (- 83,8%).

4.6.1. Possible found interferences to the reception of the invoice from the supplier: 6ª phase.

The interferences that could be verified are a lot little. In reference to the payments, difficultly it is presumed can arrive not correct invoices, the time comes down to 8′ 34 “(-66,6%).
Smaller relative activities to supplyings involve also one reduction of the interferences: smaller possibilities to imbattersi in problems of system or software, minors errors in dealing information, minors difficulty to find documents and the binders that can be made hard work to find endured.
That involves one reduction of the equal times to the 59.1%.

4.7. Payment of the invoice.

Also for how much it concerns the payment of the invoices more turns out all much simplified since the invoices to pay will be reduced lessened, since in an only invoice they come brought back various positions also of various suppliers.
Therefore it could be arrived to having also only 12 invoices if eventually the company of agreement with the provider decides to receive the invoice one single time to the relative month to all the materials of that period.

4.7.1. Possible found interferences in the payment of the invoice: 7ª phase.

Consequently also the control of the payments turns out become simpler if problems are not taken place, the time necessary weekly magazine for this type of control in fact is reduced to 31′ 30 “(-45,5%).
As far as the inconvenient legacies to the payments this are introduced more very rarely also and, when it happens, their resolution is facilitated from minor the number of information to deal and above all since there is a single subject with which dealing and not one myriad of suppliers.

4.8. Before and after the integrated supply: comparison of the times

In this paragraph they come it analyzes to you and it confronts give to you to you collected before and after the adoption of the outsourcing of supplyings in the shape of the integrated supply of Unitec, being based on the surveys it carries out to you in the enterprise and on the esteem elaborated in the previous paragraphs.
The units been involved in the supplying process are four: logistic unit, that one trades them, telephone exchange and administrative unit and l first consequence induced from the integrated supply of Unitec, for all and the four units is sure the clean reduction of the time that the enterprise dedicates to the management of supplyings.
Diagram 4.15 under brought back here is represents the times finds to you in the units of the enterprise champion – in red – and those to you that esteem can be caught up – in blue -.
It will be noticed endured that the unit mainly been involved in the supplying processes remains that one trades them; however, considering the number of assigned for unit, they are the units logistic and administrative that employ more time to the week in operations connected to the supplies.
Draft of a radical change of direction that it induces to conclude that just the unit trades them is what it has found greater giovamento from the integrated supply, allowing a greater saving of time.


Fig. 4.15: Rappresentazione of the times employs every week to you from the dependent of the various units for to the management of the supplies, before – in red – and after – in blue – the integrated supply.

Like test of that enough to that is think that every attached of the unit trades saves more they than 2 hours and 48 minuteren to the day, reducing the connected duties to not strategic supplyings medium of the 87.3%.
That is jointly determined from one strongly reduction of activities (- 87%) and of the relative interferences, that they diminish more than proportionally than very the 95.8%.
As far as the sun connected direct activities to supplyings, he is the attache’ to the administrative unit to save more time however if considered in connection with the mount hours total, the lessening is equal nearly 80%.
it is from noticing that the administration, also characterized already in departure from rather low direct interferences, with the integrated supply has succeeded however in reduces the measure of two thirds party.
Also the logistic unit introduces since it seems in controtendenza regarding the other business units; the lessening of the activities, in fact, is equal to 42%, decidedly less decided regarding the other values that vary from 79.5% to 87%.
The reason resides in the relationship between activity and interferences of the agency: contrarily to the other units, in fact, the greater part of the time normally is spold for the equal direct interferences to the 47,5% of the time total – while the true activities and own they occupy, second directly found how much, a reduced time more; such cut involves one reduction clearly greater percentage of the interferences regarding the activities.
The reduction of the cross-sectional interferences, as it can be noticed, turns out relatively less pronounced regarding the activities and to the direct interferences. In nearly all the business agencies these diminish amazingly in homogenous way of approximately an average hour and, with the exception of the unit telephone exchange secretariat, than however, not introducing some type of directed interferences, it is from considering, under this point of view, a case to part.
That is due, at the same time, is to the fact that, in departure, the cross-sectional interferences more low have a value of time regarding the activities and to the directed interferences, is to the fact that they are tied to less sensitive factors that do not come of all eliminate esternalizzando the management to you of the supplies and however to the diminished volume of job.
Reassuming, second they give to you brought back, it can be asserted that in the specific case of the enterprise champion, the introduction of the integrated supply of Unitec would involve in average one reduction of the direct interferences of the 93,8%, of the activities of 81% and of the cross-sectional interferences of the 66,9%, for one reduction of the times totals dedicates you to the relative duties to supplyings around 81%.
In particular, the business agencies that mainly from there would draw advantage would be, in the order, the unit trade them, the unit telephone exchange-secretariat, the administrative unit and that logistic one.
In the first one and the quarter, strong reductions of the directed interferences could be verified above all, in the others two, instead of the activities.
This different behavior depends in great part from the nature of the carried out duties: the unit telephone exchange-secretariat, therefore like the administration, turns out mainly sensitive to varying of the volumes of information deals to you, and in fact, for these agencies, they are the relative reductions of time to the activities to contribute in determining way to the reduction of the times; the logistic unit and that one trade them, instead in average, demonstrate to above all find particular giovamento from the lessening of the direct interferences.

4.9. Before and after the adoption of the integrated supply: economic appraisal.

As it has been able to understand from the previous paragraph, the supply turns out to be an optimal instrument of management of relative supplyings you to not strategic material, in how much it allows the attache’s of the company to dedicate to minor time to the management of such process, being able itself to in this way dedicate to all those activities tied to Core business that they turn out to have strategic character and a greater added value.
Beyond to such comparison, in this paragraph the service of supply integrated offered from Unitec has been calculated to how much piles the saving obtained from the company using and in order to make that needs is of the cost working hours supported from the entrepreneur who of the employed hours in order to carry a.termine supplying managed inner from the attache’s.
The first value groups all those costs that an entrepreneur must support for the development of the normal business activity.
It could be thought that in such figure those relative costs re-enter only you to the active management of the staff like wages or salaries and contributions; those direct costs re-enter instead all and indirect that damp in the time allow to you the dependent to carry out their job, which rent of the premises, equipments like computers and fax, but also infrastructures which machinery and tools. Such cost has been calculated and piles to approximately 140 euro to the hour.
According to statistics carried out from the European union such value is however in continuous increase.
For the first trimester of this year it has already only been recorded, in Eurolandia an increment of 2,3 % regarding the same period of 2003.
Light increase also regarding the previous trimester, when the cost of the job had made to record a + 2,2%.
Obviously such varied value from state to state, as an example in the first trimester of the 2004 has recorded a +0.2% for Austria, one 0.5% for the Portugal and +1,5 % in Germany.
In our country, the cost working hours, records an increment of +4.1 %, with one decided increase regarding +0.6% of the first trimester of 2003 and to +2.3% of last the three months of the past year.
After all they give to you over brought back do not want that to confirm that such cost has the tendency to grow with passing of the years.
For how much it concerns the hours dedicated from the attache’s of the company in order to find the material lack until obtaining the goods and to pay of the relative invoice piles to approximately 7 hours, such data is given from the summary one of the times brought back in brought back diagram 2.4 in understood it the 2.
In order to obtain therefore the cost total supported from the company in order to carry out supplying it is necessary to carry out the following operation:


Carrying out such calculation, it turns out therefore that to manage such supplying it costs to the company approximately 1015 Euro.
From that of it it derives that for the company it is more convenient to make to manage to Unitec, all those not strategic supplyings, whose value of purchase is not elevated.
To make to move the entire bureaucratic machine above all coast to the company in fact a exorbitant and sproporzionata figure regarding the value and to the importance that such good covers for the company.
The company entrusting to Unitec supplyings will have therefore a double advantage: on one side in fact it will have to pay a service cost more low much than 1015 Euro (thanks to the efficiency of the processes is possible to apply in fact of the reduced margins.) and moreover it will be able to be dedicated to those strategic activities tied Core business.
Having more time, but above all more resources in staff and money in order to carry out them, such activities that will come executed in better and more profitable way for the same company.
After all in this center we can consider the integrated supply an optimal instrument of management of supplyings that allows the companies that use it to render dynamics and above all flexible the company, thanks to the transformation of the supplying costs, once it considers you fixed in adaptable variable costs and therefore to the business volume.


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L. Ronche, ” Introduzione alla pianificazione a lungo termine e alle strategie d’imprese”, Franco Angeli editore, 1975.
L. Fumagalli, P. Di Croccio, ” L’outsourcing e i nuovi scenari della terziarizzazione” , Franco Angeli Editore, 2002.
R. Perrotin, F. Calì, “Il marketing d’acquisto: strategie e tattiche” Franco Angeli editore, 2002.
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G. Merli, M. Loni, “Comakership: clienti e fornitori come fare business insieme” Isedi, 1997.
A. De Maio, E. Maggiore, “Organizzare per innovare: rapporti evoluti clienti-fornitori”, Etaslibri, 1997.
A.Landi, “Il marketing d’acquisto: guida pratica ad uso dei dirigenti e degli addetti agli approvvigionamenti”, Franco Angeli Editore, 1979.
L. Cantone, “Outsourcing e creazione del valore”, Il sole 24 ore, 2000.
G. Ferrando, “Subfornitura e approvvigionamento nell’evoluzione del sistema aziendale”, Milano, 1987.
G. Gregari, “L’evoluzione del processo di outsourcing nelle strategie di sviluppo delle imprese”, G. Giapichelli Editore, 1999.
V. Marino, D. Brignone, “Case History – Per una catena del valore” Soluzioni, 1998.
P.Venturini, “Outsourcing degli approvvigionamenti e integrazione degli acquisti il caso Unitec”, Università ” La Sapienza di Roma” A.A 1997-1998
V. Marino, “L’outsourcing procedurale degli Approvvigionamenti” Comprare Oggi, 1998.
Supply Chain Council ( SCC ) , 2004.
J. Champy, M. Hammer, “Ripensare l’azienda” Sperling & Kupfer Editori, 1994.
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Dati anagrafici:
Nome: Roberta.
Cognome: Smaila.
Indirizzo: Torino, Via Pergolesi, 60.
Luogo e data di nascita: Torino, 01 Aprile 1981.
Stato civile: Nubile.
Cellulare: 3473644427 – 0049 1738226634
Telefono: 011 266393

Formazione scolastica:

Laurea di I° livello in Commercio Estero c/o Università degli studi di Torino.
Conseguita il 12 Luglio 2004 con la votazione di 101/ 110.
Titolo della tesi: ” La fornitura integrata negli acquisti: il caso Unitec”.
Diploma di Perito aziendale e corrispondente in lingue estere.
Conseguito c/o I.T.C. ” Vera e Libera Arduino” di Torino il 10 Luglio 2000 con la seguente votazione: 95/100.

Esperienze professionali:

Maggio 2004 – Dicembre 2004. c/o Unitec G.m.b.H di Gersthofen.
Gestione di un budget-clienti, supporto alle vendite e agli acquisti con contatti giornalieri sia con clienti italiani che con fornitori stranieri e addetta alle attività di segretariato.
Ottobre 2002 – Maggio 2004. c/o E.d.j Promotion di Torino.
Attività di promozione e hostess nei centri commerciali.

Lingue straniere:

Italiano: madrelingua.
Tedesco: buono sia scritto che parlato.
Inglese: discreto sia scritto che parlato.

Conoscenze informatiche:
Buone conoscenze dei sistemi operativi di Windows ( Word, Excel..).

Libera da contratto dal 1 Gennaio 2005.
Disponibile a brevi trasferte sia in Italia che all’estero.

Altre informazioni:

Stage: Ottobre 2003 – Dicembre 2003 c/o Unitec G.m.b.H. Solleciti giornalieri ai fornitori, creazione schede clienti, archivio, supporto all’ufficio vendite e acquisti.
Stage : Luglio 2003 – Settembre 2003 c/o Eaton – Amtec di Rivarolo ( To ). Inserimento dati, attività di segretariato per l’ufficio tecnico, creazione schede tecniche e cicli di lavorazione, archivio.
Estate 2001 – Estate 2003: Commessa c/o gelateria di Torino.

Io sottoscritta, Roberta Smaila, autorizzo all’utilizzo dei miei dati personali, in conformità alla legge 675/96.

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